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Bills scheduled for discussion in Dáil Éireann from the 7th of September 2020 till the 13th of September 2020.

2020.09.07 07:38 PlasticCoffee Bills scheduled for discussion in Dáil Éireann from the 7th of September 2020 till the 13th of September 2020.

Bills scheduled for discussion in Dáil Éireann from the 7th of September 2020 till the 13th of September 2020.
This information was found on oireachtas.ie the official government website for the Government, Oireachtas.ie does say that the schedule is subject to change at short notice.
A lot of the descriptions are in legalese and they reference legal statutes and other laws, but these descriptions are from oireachtas.ie. If you follow the link you can also find a link to the bills in question themselves.
Let me know if you think this could be done better.
Bills scheduled for discussion
Subject to change at short notice
Tue, 8 Sep 2020
Defence (Amendment) Bill 2020 In Dáil Éireann
Sponsored by: Minister for Defence, Simon Coveney (FG)
Source: Government
Originating House: Dáil Éireann
Official Description :
Bill entitled an Act to amend the Defence Act 1954 and the Defence (Amendment) (No. 2) Act 1979; and to provide for related matters.
Expanded Description :
This Bill (Insertion of new section 17A in Principal Act) inserts a new section (section 17A) into the Defence Act 1954 to permit the delegation by the Minister for Defence of a limited degree of control and authority over a Defence Forces contingent (referred to as ‘operational control’ in this amendment) deployed as part of an international force to the Force Commander of that force. The amendment will not alter the current command structure within the Irish Defence Forces but merely underpins current practice in relation to day to day operational control of contingents of the Permanent Defence Force (PDF) engaged in international operations.
A. The amendment provides that a delegation of operational control by the Minister for Defence to the Force Commander will be in writing and may be subject to such exceptions and limitations as the Minister may determine, having had regard to such requirements as are necessary for the efficient operation of the mission concerned. Any delegation of operational control will provide as follows:
(i) in so far as is necessary to ensure the efficient operation of a mission, provide that each member of the Defence Forces assigned to an international force led by a Force Commander shall comply with every lawful order issued to him or her by a member of the international force in his or her military chain of command, subject to any exclusions as may be specified in the written delegation;
(ii) provide that the military police component of the international force under the authority of the Force Commander may arrest and detain a member of the Defence Forces provided such member is handed over as soon as possible to the Irish contingent commander or the designated senior Irish officer;
(iii) provide that each member of the Defence Forces in respect of whom a delegation of operational control is made shall cooperate with the military police component of the international force;
(iv) include any other ancillary provisions in relation to the delegation of operational control as the Minister may deem to be necessary for the efficient operation of the mission to which the delegation refers.
B. This Bill includes a number of amendments to the Defence Act 1954 to facilitate the re-enlistment of suitably-qualified former enlisted members of the Defence Forces to fill certain positions.
The intention is that this provision will be used to enlist suitably-qualified former enlisted persons in the PDF to fill certain positions. Any person enlisted under this section will have particular skills and expertise required by the Defence Forces which cannot be met through the use of existing military resources.
Persons enlisted under this section will be enlisted for a specified period and for a specified purpose (involving the use of a particular skill or area or expertise) and will not be subject to the normal service requirements which apply to persons enlisted under section 53. In addition, any person enlisted under this section will be required to meet general eligibility criteria (including in relation to physical fitness) to ensure that he or she will be capable of performing normal military duties (including, if necessary, in relation to overseas service).
C. This Bill contains a amendment being amended to provide for a application that is submitted relating to application for an extension of time to bring forward an appeal for a summary court martial provided any such application is brought before the end of the “initial period”.
There will now be no requirement on the summary court-martial to be available to consider the application for an extension before the end of the “initial period” (that is, the summary court-martial will have the flexibility to consider the application and issue a decision after the expiry of the “initial period”).
D. This Bill also includes a series of amendments to remove the references in the Defence Act to the enlistment of persons under the age of 18 as the Defence Act still contains references to the enlistment of minors.
Wed, 9 Sep 2020
Defence (Amendment) Bill 2020 In Dáil Éireann
As above
Thu, 10 Sep 2020
Ministers and Ministers of State (Successors) Bill 2020 In Dáil Éireann
Sponsored by: Peadar Tóibín (Aontú)
Source: Private Member
Originating House: Dáil Éireann
Official Description :
Bill entitled an Act to ensure the prompt appointment of successors to Ministers and Ministers of State who have as a result of a general election ceased to be members of the Oireachtas; and to provide for related matters.
Expanded Description :
Constitutionally Ministers must be Oireachtas members, as must Ministers of State. However, Ministers and Ministers of State who have ceased to be members of the Oireachtas continue to act for a period of time as Minister until they are replaced.
The purpose of this Bill is to ensure the prompt appointment of successors to those Ministers and Ministers of State who have, as a result of a general election, ceased to be Oireachtas members.
In particular the Bill seeks to more promptly reflect the outcome of a general election and bring the composition of Government into alignment with Article 28.7 of the Constitution.
This Bill requires the Taoiseach to nominate successors to Ministers and Ministers of State who have ceased to be members of a House of the Oireachtas. This duty applies equally to a Taoiseach who is continuing to carry on his or her duties pursuant to Article 28.11 of the Constitution. Persons appointed by a Taoiseach in such circumstances will not necessarily occupy Ministerial office in the Government which will subsequently be formed.
However, they will be in a position to assist the caretaker Government as members of that Government and they will be persons with a current mandate, because pursuant to Article 28.7 of the Constitution and section 1(1) of the Act of 1977 they will be Oireachtas members.
Taoiseach’s duties under it must be performed on or before “the specified date”. For all future general elections, that date is six weeks after the general election.
This timeframe has regard for the requirement in Article 16.4.2° of the Constitution that Dáil Éireann “shall meet within 30 days from” the general election polling day. In respect of the last general election, “the specified date” by which the duties under Section 3 must be performed is the date that is seven days after the passing of the Bill.
This timeframe is short because of the following factors:
1) the time that has already passed since the last general election;
2) the additional time which the Bill is likely to take in going through the legislative process;
3) the reality that, since there will be a newly appointed Taoiseach prior to passing of the Bill, there is a high degree of probability that the newly appointed Taoiseach will be able to carry out the duties imposed by Section 3 of the Bill before the Bill is passed.
Consequently, with respect to the last general election, Section 3 of the Bill will apply only if the duties imposed by it have not been carried out prior to passing of the Bill. It will of course apply with respect to future general elections.
This Bill will make it so that instead of the appointment of a Minister of State ending only on the appointment of the Taoiseach’s successor, the appointment of a Minister of State will end on either the appointment of the Taoiseach’s successor or the appointment of the successor to the Minister of State concerned (whichever happens first).
This Bill can be read about here, from the meath chronical
Or here from the Irish examiner
Apologies for not making as much of these posts as I would like to, has been a busy time for me
Thanks for reading tho : )
Also I made a Subreddit called Oireachtas that just has the weekly posts i have made if anyone wants to go through them, I intend to use it as a archive for these posts.Link to it here Oireachtas
submitted by PlasticCoffee to irishpolitics [link] [comments]


2020.09.07 07:36 PlasticCoffee Bills scheduled for discussion in Dáil Éireann from the 7th of September 2020 till the 13th of September 2020.

Bills scheduled for discussion in Dáil Éireann from the 7th of September 2020 till the 13th of September 2020.
This information was found on oireachtas.ie the official government website for the Government, Oireachtas.ie does say that the schedule is subject to change at short notice.
A lot of the descriptions are in legalese and they reference legal statutes and other laws, but these descriptions are from oireachtas.ie. If you follow the link you can also find a link to the bills in question themselves.
Let me know if you think this could be done better.
Bills scheduled for discussion
Subject to change at short notice
Tue, 8 Sep 2020
Defence (Amendment) Bill 2020 In Dáil Éireann
Sponsored by: Minister for Defence, Simon Coveney (FG)
Source: Government
Originating House: Dáil Éireann
Official Description :
Bill entitled an Act to amend the Defence Act 1954 and the Defence (Amendment) (No. 2) Act 1979; and to provide for related matters.
Expanded Description :
This Bill (Insertion of new section 17A in Principal Act) inserts a new section (section 17A) into the Defence Act 1954 to permit the delegation by the Minister for Defence of a limited degree of control and authority over a Defence Forces contingent (referred to as ‘operational control’ in this amendment) deployed as part of an international force to the Force Commander of that force. The amendment will not alter the current command structure within the Irish Defence Forces but merely underpins current practice in relation to day to day operational control of contingents of the Permanent Defence Force (PDF) engaged in international operations.
A. The amendment provides that a delegation of operational control by the Minister for Defence to the Force Commander will be in writing and may be subject to such exceptions and limitations as the Minister may determine, having had regard to such requirements as are necessary for the efficient operation of the mission concerned. Any delegation of operational control will provide as follows:
(i) in so far as is necessary to ensure the efficient operation of a mission, provide that each member of the Defence Forces assigned to an international force led by a Force Commander shall comply with every lawful order issued to him or her by a member of the international force in his or her military chain of command, subject to any exclusions as may be specified in the written delegation;
(ii) provide that the military police component of the international force under the authority of the Force Commander may arrest and detain a member of the Defence Forces provided such member is handed over as soon as possible to the Irish contingent commander or the designated senior Irish officer;
(iii) provide that each member of the Defence Forces in respect of whom a delegation of operational control is made shall cooperate with the military police component of the international force;
(iv) include any other ancillary provisions in relation to the delegation of operational control as the Minister may deem to be necessary for the efficient operation of the mission to which the delegation refers.
B. This Bill includes a number of amendments to the Defence Act 1954 to facilitate the re-enlistment of suitably-qualified former enlisted members of the Defence Forces to fill certain positions.
The intention is that this provision will be used to enlist suitably-qualified former enlisted persons in the PDF to fill certain positions. Any person enlisted under this section will have particular skills and expertise required by the Defence Forces which cannot be met through the use of existing military resources.
Persons enlisted under this section will be enlisted for a specified period and for a specified purpose (involving the use of a particular skill or area or expertise) and will not be subject to the normal service requirements which apply to persons enlisted under section 53. In addition, any person enlisted under this section will be required to meet general eligibility criteria (including in relation to physical fitness) to ensure that he or she will be capable of performing normal military duties (including, if necessary, in relation to overseas service).
C. This Bill contains a amendment being amended to provide for a application that is submitted relating to application for an extension of time to bring forward an appeal for a summary cour martial provided any such application is broug before the end of the “initial period”.
There will now be no requirement on the summary court-martial to be available to consider the application for an extension before the end of the “initial period” (that is, the summary court-martial will have the flexibility to consider the application and issue a decision after the expiry of the “initial period”).
D. This Bill also includes a series of amendments to remove the references in the Defence Act to the enlistment of persons under the age of 18 as the Defence Act still contains references to the enlistment of minors.
Wed, 9 Sep 2020
Defence (Amendment) Bill 2020 In Dáil Éireann
As above
Thu, 10 Sep 2020
Ministers and Ministers of State (Successors) Bill 2020 In Dáil Éireann
Sponsored by: Peadar Tóibín (Aontú)
Source: Private Member
Originating House: Dáil Éireann
Official Description :
Bill entitled an Act to ensure the prompt appointment of successors to Ministers and Ministers of State who have as a result of a general election ceased to be members of the Oireachtas; and to provide for related matters.
Expanded Description :
Constitutionally Ministers must be Oireachtas members, as must Ministers of State. However, Ministers and Ministers of State who have ceased to be members of the Oireachtas continue to act for a period of time as Minister until they are replaced.
The purpose of this Bill is to ensure the prompt appointment of successors to those Ministers and Ministers of State who have, as a result of a general election, ceased to be Oireachtas members.
In particular the Bill seeks to more promptly reflect the outcome of a general election and bring the composition of Government into alignment with Article 28.7 of the Constitution.
This Bill requires the Taoiseach to nominate successors to Ministers and Ministers of State who have ceased to be members of a House of the Oireachtas. This duty applies equally to a Taoiseach who is continuing to carry on his or her duties pursuant to Article 28.11 of the Constitution. Persons appointed by a Taoiseach in such circumstances will not necessarily occupy Ministerial office in the Government which will subsequently be formed.
However, they will be in a position to assist the caretaker Government as members of that Government and they will be persons with a current mandate, because pursuant to Article 28.7 of the Constitution and section 1(1) of the Act of 1977 they will be Oireachtas members.
Taoiseach’s duties under it must be performed on or before “the specified date”. For all future general elections, that date is six weeks after the general election.
This timeframe has regard for the requirement in Article 16.4.2° of the Constitution that Dáil Éireann “shall meet within 30 days from” the general election polling day. In respect of the last general election, “the specified date” by which the duties under Section 3 must be performed is the date that is seven days after the passing of the Bill.
This timeframe is short because of the following factors:
1) the time that has already passed since the last general election;
2) the additional time which the Bill is likely to take in going through the legislative process;
3) the reality that, since there will be a newly appointed Taoiseach prior to passing of the Bill, there is a high degree of probability that the newly appointed Taoiseach will be able to carry out the duties imposed by Section 3 of the Bill before the Bill is passed.
Consequently, with respect to the last general election, Section 3 of the Bill will apply only if the duties imposed by it have not been carried out prior to passing of the Bill. It will of course apply with respect to future general elections.
This Bill will make it so that instead of the appointment of a Minister of State ending only on the appointment of the Taoiseach’s successor, the appointment of a Minister of State will end on either the appointment of the Taoiseach’s successor or the appointment of the successor to the Minister of State concerned (whichever happens first).
This Bill can be read about here, from the meath chronical
Or here from the Irish examiner
Apologies for not making as much of these posts as I would like to, has been a busy time for me
Thanks for reading tho : )
Also I made a Subreddit called Oireachtas that just has the weekly posts i have made if anyone wants to go through them, I intend to use it as a archive for these posts.Link to it here Oireachtas
submitted by PlasticCoffee to Oireachtas [link] [comments]


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submitted by HaulA29Augl to u/HaulA29Augl [link] [comments]


2020.07.27 02:14 DrStanner I don't know what to do anymore.

Im starting to reach the end of my tether and I dont know what to do any more. I dont know if there are any answers or not, I don't even know if venting here is going to do me any good but right now I'm willing to give anything a shot.
So, a little bit about me. I'm 33 years old, I'm a military veteran and I have mental health problems centering around depression and anxiety. A number of years ago I got divorced and I've been single ever since.
I've been to see mental meath specialists three times in the past. The first doctor I saw after i had my first breakdown, when I explained to him what was going on, said to me, "Well what do you want me to do about it?" I managed to get to the specialists and spoke to them about things and, even when I explained to them that I both had suicidal thoughts and had acted on them before, albeit unsuccessfully, they told me there was nothing wrong with me and that I "just need to cheer up." I ended up going to them a further two times and still, theres nothing wrong with me. I'm now terrified to seek any further help for fear of them saying the same thing again.
Some of the main manifestations of my mental health issues are a lack of any confidence, zero self esteem, and serious negativity about my image. I hate how I look so much that I actively try to avoid mirrors and pictures wherever possible. Some close friends have said that there's nothing wrong with how i look but I cannot bring myself to believe them, partly because of how I see myself and partly because of how others see me.
I always try to be nice to others and constantly put others before myself.
I am a divorced man and for 6 years now I have been single. No one has even given me a second glance, especially when meeting them in person. I have tried using Tinder, PoF, Bumble, Hinge, and OK Cupic but haven't got anything from any of them. Dating sites are all based on looks (despite what anyone says) so that feeds into my negative self image. Being a nice guy will only get me so far when I'm clearly an unattractive guy.
People always say that there's someone out there for everyone but i don't believe that it's the case for me. I honestly believe that there is no one out there for me and that im destined to be alone forever. I guess what I want is to be able to accept that fact and be happy with it. However, there's one part of my brain that is louder than the rest and it is desperate for me to meet someone and it craves intimacy. I want to shut that part of my brain down ... actually, I NEED to shut that part of my brain down. Slowly but surely it's killing me from the inside.
The long and short of it is that right now I know that i am going to lead a long, lonely and extremely unhappy life, and I really dont want to. I need to change one of those things, the long, lonely, or unhappy parts. Two of them i dont have much, if any, control over, but then again, the one thing i do have control over, the length, is not a path I really want to walk down again.
I dont know what to do. Any advice, guidance, or even just a friendly voice is welcome.
Please feel free to privately message me if you want.
I hope someone reads this.
submitted by DrStanner to depression [link] [comments]


2020.06.22 22:51 galaxyrocker Dia daoibh - This week's language of the week: Irish!

Irish (Gaeilge) is a Goidelic language of the Celtic language family, itself a branch of the Indo-European language family. Irish originated in Ireland and was historically and still is spoken by Irish people throughout Ireland. Although English is the more common first language elsewhere in Ireland, Irish is spoken as a first language in substantial areas of counties Galway, Kerry, Cork and Donegal, smaller areas of Waterford, Mayo and Meath

History

The Irish language has a rich history, with documentation of it dating back to the 4th century CE in ogham stones. These writings have been found throughout Ireland and the west coast of Great Britain. Primitive Irish transitioned into Old Irish through the 5th century. Old Irish, dating from the 6th century, used the Latin alphabet and is attested primarily in marginalia to Latin manuscripts. During this time, the Irish language absorbed some Latin words, some via Old Welsh, including ecclesiastical terms.
By the 10th century, Old Irish had evolved into Middle Irish, which was spoken throughout Ireland and in Scotland and the Isle of Man. It is the language of a large corpus of literature, including the Ulster Cycle. From the 12th century, Middle Irish began to evolve into modern Irish in Ireland, into Scottish Gaelic in Scotland, and into the Manx language in the Isle of Man.
Early Modern Irish, dating from the 13th century, was the basis of the literary language of both Ireland and Gaelic-speaking Scotland. Modern Irish, as attested in the work of such writers as Geoffrey Keating, may be said to date from the 17th century, and was the medium of popular literature from that time on.
Since then, however, the usage of Irish has been fast diminishing, thanks to the prevalence of English as well as actions take to keep the Irish from speaking Irish and make them switch to English. However, up until the time of the Great Potato Famine, Irish was still considered an urban and rural language; since then, it has been drastically on the decline, with the areas where Irish has been spoken have been consistently on the decline, despite (or, perhaps, because of) the efforts of the Gaelic Revival (which often wanted to keep these areas pre-industrial, something which has hurt them in modern times).
There is a growing rise of "urban Irish" or "Gaelscoilis" speakers, but vast differences have been noted between their language and that of native speakers in the unbroken tradition which still stands on the west coats and in a few other parts of the country. In some cases, there isn't even mutual ineligibility. Often, urban speakers directly important English sounds and idioms onto the language, which makes it difficult for natives to understand them (and vice-versa).

Linguistics

Irish is an Indo-European language, of the Celtic branch. It's closest living relatives are thus Scottish Gaelic, Manx, Welsh and Breton. It's more distantly related to other languages like Ancient Hittie, Latin and even Hindi!
Classification
Indo-European> Celtic > Insular Celtic > Goidelic > Irish Morphophonemics
Irish has three main dialect areas (with various subdialects) each with their own differing phonetic schema. This details discussed here should only be taken at a broad level, leaving plenty of room for individual variation at the dialectal level.
Irish has, roughly speaking, between 9 and 11 vowel phonemes (again, the numbers vary depending on dialects), including a short/long phonemic contrast. There are around 5 diphthongs as well in the language.
In terms of consonants, Irish has roughly 33 consonant phonemes. Irish distinguishes between palatalized and velarized consonants, called 'slender' and 'broad' respectively in the language. This distinction is highly important, often distinguishing between singular and plurals nouns, as well as the various cases of nouns. In other words, this broad-slender distinction has a grammatical function.
Another phonetic process which has a grammatical function in Irish is the use of 'lenition' and 'eclipsing' ('nasalization'). In this case, the initial consonant of a word undergoes a 'mutation' based on certain phonological/grammatical categories. Originally, these were all phonological, but became grammaticalized with the loss of certain word-final vowels and through analogies. The initial mutations are one of the things the Goidelc and Brythonic Celtic languages share.
Morphology and Syntax The default word order of Irish is Verb-Subject-Object, though this can change in a process known as 'fronting', which allows certain parts of the sentence to be stressed.
Irish nouns are declined for number and case, with three main cases still extant in Irish: nominative, genitive and vocative; the dative is stronger in some locations, but in other locations it is weak and is only marked by the initial mutations with no change to the form of the word. The genitive, as well, is dying out among native speakers, with the genitive plural being mostly dead in all except fossilized phrases and some more conservative dialects. Nouns are classified into one of two genders -- masculine or feminine, with the neuter gender present in Old Irish having been lost. Feminine nouns undergo lenition following the definite article an, and cause lenition on attributive adjectives following them: an bhean bheag - the small woman, where bean - a woman and beag - small. As shown in that example, Irish adjectives can undergo declension as well, to agree with case, number and gender of the proceeding noun.
Irish verbs conjugate for person and number, though only the first person singular and plural have a distinct form in the standard (other forms exist in the various dialects). By convention, it's often said that Irish only has 11 irregular verbs, though there are other "semi-irregular" verbs in the language as well. Irish maintains a distinction between two types of copula. Verbs in Irish conjugate for 5 distinct tenses/moods, though others can be expressed periphrastically (i.e. using helping verbs). Irish also has what is known as the saorbhriathar, which is often taught as a passive though it is really an impersonal form of an active verb (think 'they use the Euro in Ireland', where it's an unspecified 'they'). Verbs are further divided into two conjugation classes, excluding the irregular and semi-irregular verbs. The difference between the standard form of the verb rith and the synthetic forms, used in the dialects of Munster (though not often taught to learners, even when they learn 'Munster Irish') can be seen in the table below. The forms are for the Irish as used in the Corca Dhuibhne area of Kerry (note Connacht and Donegal dialects use 'rith muid' instead of 'ritheamar').
Person Standard Synthetic
1st person singular rith mé ritheas
2nd pereson singular rith tú rithis
3rd person singular rith sé/sí rith sé/sí
1st person plural ritheamar ritheamair
2nd person plural rith sibh ritheabhair
3rd person plural rith siad ritheadar
Irish has twenty-one personal pronouns, distinguishing each person and in the third person singular for gender, in three series (conjuctive, disjunctive and emphatic). It's interesting to note that the first person plural pronoun has one of two forms, often depending on dialect, where an o;der form sinn has been replaced with a newer form, muid. Irish has no T-V distinction, with one possible except of using the plural second person pronoun sibh when speaking to a priest, under the assumption they could be carrying the Eucharist with them, thus you would also be addressing God.
A last, interesting feature, about Irish is the use of 'prepositional pronouns', or prepositions that are inflected for person. Thus, instead of using two words for 'at me', Irish only has one word for it, with the pronoun itself being inflected to convey the meaning. The inflections of ag ('at') can be seen in the table below:
Person Singular Plural
1 agam againn
2 agat agaibh
3 aige/aici acu
The forms of these prepositions and, indeed, even the number of them is highly variable between dialects. For instance, Connemara is famous for using 'am, 'ad, aige, aici, 'ainn, agaí, acub instead of the standard forms.
Orthography
Modern Irish traditionally used the Latin alphabet without the letters j, k, q, w, x, y and z. However, some Gaelicised words use those letters: for instance, "jeep" is written as "jíp" (the letter v has been naturalised into the language, although it is not part of the traditional alphabet, and has the same pronunciation as "bh"). One diacritic sign, the acute accent (á é í ó ú), known in Irish as the síneadh fada ("long mark"; plural: sínte fada), is used in the alphabet. In idiomatic English usage, this diacritic is frequently referred to simply as the fada, where the adjective is used as a noun. The fada serves to lengthen the sound of the vowels and in some cases also changes their quality. For example, in Munster Irish (Kerry), a is /a/ or /ɑ/ and á is /ɑː/ in "father", but in Ulster Irish (Donegal), á tends to be /æː/.
Traditional orthography had an additional diacritic – a dot over some consonants to indicate lenition. In modern Irish, the letter h suffixed to a consonant indicates that the consonant is lenited. Thus, for example, 'Gaelaċ' has become 'Gaelach'. This dot-above diacritic, called a ponc séimhithe or sí buailte (often shortened to buailte), derives from the punctum delens used in medieval manuscripts to indicate deletion, similar to crossing out unwanted words in handwriting today. From this usage it was used to indicate the lenition of s (from /s/ to /h/) and f (from /f/ to zero) in Old Irish texts. Lenition of c, p, and t was indicated by placing the letter h after the affected consonant; lenition of b, d, g, or m was left unmarked. Later, both buailte and postposed h were extended to be indicators of lenition of any sound except l, n, and r, which could not be lenited. Eventually, use of the buailte predominated when texts were written using Gaelic letters, while the h predominated when writing using Roman letters.
Today, Gaelic type and the buailte are rarely used except where a "traditional" style is required, e.g. the motto on the University College Dublin coat of arms or the symbol of the Irish Defence Forces, the Irish Defence Forces cap badge (Óglaiġ na h-Éireann). Postposed h has predominated due to its convenience and the lack of a character set containing the overdot before Unicode, although extending the latter method to Roman letters would theoretically have the advantage of making Irish texts significantly shorter, particularly as a large portion of the h-containing digraphs in a typical Irish text are silent (ex. the above Lughbhaidh, the old spelling of Louth, which would become Luġḃaiḋ).

Dialects and Sociolinguistics

Irish has three main dialectal areas, each which can be fairly divergent from the standard in terms of grammar (there is no standard phonology). These dialect areas are 'Munster', in the South, 'Connacht' in the west (and Meath, where farmers were transplanted from Connemara in the 1920s) and Ulster, which is, sadly, only extant in Donegal (Irish having died out in Tyrone and Antrim during the last century). The last dialect of Leinster Irish, Oriel Irish, was actually more accurately classified as a dialect of Ulster Irish.
There is a shift towards using Irish more in cities, though with major issues. For one, there is no standard dialect in the cities, and they often are a hodge-podge of mistakes that just coalesce together. Likewise, pronunciation of Irish is extremely different from English, unless you're in these cities. Here, pronunciation is often just directly imported from one language to the other (as is grammar, though they make a point to say 'Irish words', i.e. to avoid loanwords). This can make it difficult for native speakers to understand the learners from these areas, and vice-versa. There have been several articles written about this, such as this one, this one, and a list of studies here. It's also worth watching this Youtube video. I can't stress enough how different this form of the language is to that actually spoken by natives, again to the point where natives even struggle to understand it.
Written sample
Bhí fear in a chomhnuidhe ar an bhaile s'againne a dtugadh siad Micheál Ruadh air. Bhí teach beag cheann-tuigheadh aige ar fhód an bhealaigh mhóir agus bhí an donas air le séideadh anuas agus le deora anuas. Lá amháin da rabh Micheál ar an aonach, casadh duine de a chuid daoine muinteardha air nach bhfaca sé le tamall fada roimhe sin. "A Mhicheáil a chroidhe," arsa a dhuine muinteardha leis, "caidé mar tá an saoghal ag éirghe leat mar seo?" "Ó, go díreach go leath-mheasardha," arsa Micheál, "tá mé briste brúighte, tuirseach cráidhte, i n-amanna plúchta agus i n-amanna báidhte." (a Donegal dialectal text. audio can be found here; a whole set of stories can be found here
Spoken samples
https://www.dias.ie/celt/celt-publications-2/glor-audio-archive/glor-cork/ (native audio collected in County Cork)
https://www.doegen.ie/ (Collections of audio recordings from the early 20th century of native speakers from lots of areas, including areas where Irish is no longer spoken)
Sources & Further reading
What now?
This thread is foremost a place for discussion. Are you a native speaker? Share your culture with us. Learning the language? Tell us why you chose it and what you like about it. Thinking of learning? Ask a native a question. Interested in linguistics? Tell us what's interesting about it, or ask other people. Discussion is week-long, so don't worry about post age, as long as it's this week's language.

Previous LotWs

submitted by galaxyrocker to languagelearning [link] [comments]


2020.05.24 19:00 thefeckamIdoing Godred Olufssun: the man who brought the English to Ireland...

Overview:
Guðrøðr Óláfsson, aka Godred Olafssun, was a man who, after a eventful and violent life, ended up being the crucial and overlooked facilitator, without whom the forces of Henry II would never have arrived in Ireland.
He is the man who, literally, made it possible for the English to invade Ireland.
Yet his story, for me, not only explains why he did, but also grants us a fascinating insight into this amazing time period.
What follows is, by necessity, only an overview, with a few sources at the end.
Background: The Crovan Dynasty
If I had my way I would talk endlessly about Godred’s amazing dynasty- how his grandfather somehow managed to crawl out of the massacre of Stamford Bridge, one of the few survivors of Hadradar’s failed attempt to take England in 1066.
How this young mercenary (named Godred Crovan or Godred Clawhand) born on the Isle of Mann to a amazing mixture of Norse and Irish bloodlines, had returned and lived there until his patron and patron’s son (rulers of Mann) had died whereupon Crovan took over the Kingdom and turned Mann into the paramount naval superpower of its age.
Under Crovan, Mann not only subjugated much of coastal Scotland, they also took Dublin from the Norse-Irish and confounded & defeated the Normans with alarming regularity. It also monopolised the principle trading routes across the Irish Sea making it an economic as well as naval superpower (which coupled with a campaign of ethnic cleansing on Mann itself allowed him to control the island with near impunity).
The story then gets more interesting with Godred Crovan’s death and the rivalry of his three sons to control Mann. It had caused the youngest son, one Óláfr (Olaf) to flee the chaos caused by his father’s death and to be raised in the court of Henry I, king of England. When he came of age, Olaf was able to return and claim Mann.
It was his death that brings his son, our very own Godfred Olafssun, into this tale.
Context: the Madness of the Irish Sea
Before we start however, it is vital you understand one crucial thing. Olafssun was born into a fluid and dynamic world of many states. It is easy for us to look at a map and use titles such as ‘England’ and ‘Ireland’ and ‘Scotland’ and assume these were geopolitical entities. They were not.
Rather see that the only geopolitical reality was the Irish Sea itself. Around the 12th Century this stretch of water linked a bewildering variety of Kingdoms, regions, tribes and ethnicities together, all of whom were seeking to create stable nations, all of whom had borders that waxed and waned with the passing of the years.
We use Ireland/England/Scotland to help US navigate this time period. At the time however Olafssun would have used other geopolitical titles- Leinster, Munster, Cinn Tire (Kintyre); Argyll; Tír Eoghain (Tyrone); Galloway; Arainn (Arran); Connacht; Mann; Duiblinn (Dublin); Skye; Rìoghachd nan Eilean (the Kingdom of the Isles) Gwynedd, Alba, Pembroke and many, many more.
Cambro-Norman’s, Saxons, Scots, Irish, Norse-Irish, Welsh, Norwegian, Danish, Anglo-Norman’s and other tribes mingled, intermarried, fought and killed one another along the waterway.
It is a chaotic era, where the only true power was control of the sea. Then, as now, maritime power was indicative of true geopolitical power, and this had been the situation for a century or more; these micro-nations waged constant sea based warfare upon one another, and the closest ‘super power’ was the distant Kings of Norway, who could supply the only external navy able to match the smorgasbord of competing nations.
Becoming King of Mann
Godred, our hero, had been born on Mann sometime in the mid to late 1130’s. He was raised to be heir of the island kingdom, a young prince of a petty kingdom. His first known task as a royal prince was to sail, aged we think about 16 or so, to Norway and there present the tribute the Lords of Mann payed the Norwegian Kings, sometime in 1152.
While he was away a dynastic dispute broke out over his homeland between his father Olaf and the children of Olaf’s older brother, Godred’s cousins, known collectively as the Haraldssonar.
The three nephews of King Olaf had sailed to Mann in force and had demanded Olaf turn over half the kingdom to them as part of their inheritance as members of the Crovan dynasty. Olaf responded, as he always did, by trying to negotiate a settlement. Olaf was by all accounts a ruler who sought to legitimise his kingdom via the rule of law. His nephews represented a more violent attitude towards politics. They murdered him and claimed Mann together.
Olaf had married the daughter of Fergus of Galloway, and Godred was the product of this Union of the Gallowanian and Mann dynasties. This wasn’t JUST a marriage however, Olaf of Mann and Fergus of Galloway had allied much more deeply- so much so that there existed in the Isle of Mann a sizeable contingent of supporters of Olaf who had moved there from Galloway in the north.
Why? Because with Mann’s support, Galloway was able to resist the kings of Scotland from absorbing his lands under their control.
When the Haraldssonar took over then, they began a systematic campaign of ethnic cleansing, attempting to kill or drive off the residents who had come from Galloway; no sooner had they established a firm grip on the island then they launched a pre-emotive strike upon Galloway itself. A large fleet of Mannian ships landed and while not able to conquer it, it is clear they crippled Fergus ability to support his grandson, Godred.
The young Godred however could call upon someone else for support. The Norwegian King, Inge Crookback, to whom he had just given tribute to, was more than happy to support Godred with a small fleet and troops. It wasn’t enough to take back his homeland but it was enough to grant him support in the eyes of many of his peers.
With this Norwegian fleet he crossed the North Sea to the Orkneys, where he was recognised as rightful king by the lords there and given more troops.
At the head of this armada then, Young Godred invaded Mann; where he battled and overcame his cousins, killing one and blinding the other two. He had regained his birthright and by 1153 was now Lord of Mann.
He was a young man, with a established record for decisive action and a willingness to resort to violence, and who now ran the most important island in the Irish Sea with a powerful fleet at his disposal.
He was plunged immediately into the volatile politics of the era.
The Irish Dimension
Around 1154 the title of High King of Ireland was held by the elderly Toirrdelbach Ua Conchibair, King of Connacht. He possessed a decent army and by all accounts he also owned vast fleet and was a naval based power.
The King of Crnél nEógain, one Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn, decided to press his claim for the title of High King. The conflict led to one of the most overlooked battles of the 12th century. Two vast fleets met just off the Inishowen coast, to the far north of Ireland.
Here Muirchertach's naval forces were supposedly mercenaries for Galloway, Arran, Kintyre, mainland Scotland and Mann. In other words, Godred led his navy alongside a vast array of Scottish allies, in support of Muirchertach's claim for High King.
Muirchertach lost the battle, but Toirrdelbach's naval forces seem to have been reduced to a point of being unable to aid him. His rival now weakened, this allowed Muirchertach march on Dublin, take the city and effectively take the title of High King.
However this is where things get really complicated.
Godred: King of Dublin
There now follows a sequence of events which the main documents which provide evidence cannot agree on dates at all, so what follows is speculative based upon the most probable sequence of events.
There seems to have developed a complex relationship between Godred, Muirchertach and a Scottish warlord called Somerled.
Somerled is a mysterious figure fills the model of ‘warlord despot’ with great ease. Originating from Norse Gaelic stock, he had risen from utter obscurity to become King of Kintyre; in his struggles to oppose David I of Scotland he had sought out the help of King Olaf and had married his daughter, making him Godred’s brother in law.
Godred and Somerled had battled together for Muirchertach in the naval conflict, but that did not mean they were all allied. Nor that Muirchertach’s dominion over Dublin was secure.
Dublin wasn’t an Irish town after all. At best you could call it Norse-Irish, and the residents (Ostmen) sought to either choose their own rulers or if possible, invite in a powerful ruler of Ostman stock, even if it meant turning against their new King. It was this that led the Ostmen of Dublin to invite Godred to become their king.
Godred seems happy to obliged and appears by all accounts to have accepted the title, sometime we think between 1154-1156. Muirchertach, obviously, objects to this and sends a force, supposedly of around 3,000 horsemen, to reacquire Dublin.
While full details are very sketchy we think Muirchertach mustered his force somewhere in the Boyne valley, where they proceeded south devastating the land, before Godred and the Dubliners repulsed his army, forcing it to retire.
However Muirchertach had Diarmait Mac Murchada, designated King of Leinster at the time, campaign in the region, destroying crops and harrying the Dubliners. In time, the residents of the city agreed to negotiate peace with Diarmait, recognising him as their overlord and ending Godred’s brief tenure as King.
A possible sweetener to the deal was Godfred was married to Findguala Nic Lochlainn, Muirchertach’s Grand-daughter, but whatever the case Godred’s ‘rule’ over Dublin seems to have lasted only a brief while. And his failure to secure the port seems to have left him somewhat over-extended.
This weakness appears to have been noticed by Muirchertach who, probably unhappy at Godred’s adventurism, possibly informed Somerled, who in turn saw his chance to strike at Godred.
The War with Somerled
Around 1155 Somerled attempted a coup against Godred, trying to place his own son upon the throne of Mann (Somerlad’s wife being Godred’s sister granting the son a dynastic link to the Crovan dynasty and claim to Mann).
Godred managed to get wind of this coup and raised his fleet. This led to the Battle of Epiphany, where two vast fleets clashed off the coast of Isley in Scotland (Somerled had at least 80 ships on his side alone).
The battle was inconclusive and eventually Somerled and Godred negotiated a peace settlement where they divided to the Kingdom of the Isles between them. Somerled was not content with the peace settlement of 1156 and as such in 1158 he invaded again and this time drove Godred into exile.
We can reconstruct that in the chaos that followed Godred was able to have allies from Orkney fight for him, but Somerlad held on and Godred was forced to flee.
Exile: the wandering king
Now an exile, Godred travelled to find someone to support his bid to reclaim Mann. The first port of call was to travel via the many petty kingdoms of Wales into England, (although one source suggests he had to travel to the continent), to seek aid from the most powerful of the regions kings- Henry, Lord of the vast Angevin Empire.
While Henry seemed sympathetic to Godred, he offered him no help at all (Henry having no naval forces at his disposal and being at the time focused far more on Normandy), forcing Godred to seek help elsewhere. He then travels to Scotland where he hoped King Malcolm, who was hostile to Somerled, would support him.
Malcolm was even more sympathetic than Henry II and certainly agreed in principle. But Somerled was able to read the politics of the Scottish court much better than Godred, and nominally swore allegiance to Malcolm, ending any possibility of the Scots providing Olafssun with any aid.
Still Godred did not give up. He crossed the North Sea and sought the aid of his old ally, Inge Crookback, King of the Norwegians. And it is now that Godred’s tale takes an odd turn...
Kingmaker
Norway, at this time, was in the midst of what is nicely called the ‘civil wars era’, an age of complicated dynastic feuds where rulership was never secured for long.
King Inge had ruled Norway since he was a child, alongside his two brothers, Sigurd and Øystein. This three way split lasted fairly well but Inge had decided to strike out against his brothers and had killed them both.
When Godred arrived in Norway to seek help from Inge, he found himself embroiled right in the middle of the feud between Inge and his nephew, Hákor Sigurdssun.
As former King of Mann and the Island’s, Godred was treated with the same level of respect as the Scots and English had given him, but with the crucial difference being Inge desired he stick around and prove his loyalty to Norway’s king.
Added to that was the salient fact that Inge had no ships or troops to give to him; the civil war was dominating all such things. Godred now threw himself into local politics and it is said that in 1161, when King Inge faced Hákor at the Battle of Oslo, Godred commanded 1500 of the Kings men.
Which was awkward because, by all accounts, Godred swapped sides during the battle, brought those 1500 over to Hákor’s army and helped kill King Inge.
Certainly Godred was now up to his neck in the politics of Norway and there is some evidence that he was present at the coronation of the five-year old king, Magnûs Erlingsson. But he couldn’t get enough troops to return home. Somerled was too entrenched.
But then, in 1164, after an exile of about 6 long years news came that Somerled was dead. Godred acted swiftly and returned.
By the time he got there, the bloody politics of Mann had seen rulership go to Somerled’s son, before Godred’s younger brother, Rǫgnvaldr, had taken the title.
According to Icelandic sources, Godred sailed in, overthrew his brother, had him ‘mutilated’ and blinded (the exact nature of the mutilation sounds like castration or limb loss) and made himself Lord of the Kingdom again, placating the Somerled factions nominally under his control by returning to the power sharing agreement of 1156.
Godred was now back in charge of his fractious and unstable realm, surrounded by larger and more unstable neighbours. The interconnected nature of the Irish Sea meant that quickly he was returned to the confusing geopolitical reality of the waterway.
And since his was a naval based power, it was inevitable that he would end up again embroiled increasingly with the other dominant sea power- the Irish.
The Irish Endgame
Godred then was nominally King of Mann and the Isles, which was in practice split between him and Somerled’s family, but possessing a powerful fleet which was the largest in the Irish Sea.
He had been back only two years when his old friend/enemy High King Muirchertach was slain and the title of High King immediately came up for grabs. There were two rivals for it: King Diarmait Mac Murchada, and his rival, Ruaidhrí Ó Conchobhair, designated King of Connacht.
(Worth reminding ourselves- Ruaidhrí’s father had been the Irish High King who Godred and Somerled’s fleets had helped defeat to aid Muirchertach (technically Godred’s late grandfather-in-Law) while Diarmait was the man who had possibly taken Dublin from Godred); just in case we forget how small this world actually was)
The sequence of events between Diarmait and Rory are fairly well know. Diarmait was defeated and fled into exile, where he followed Godred’s route some years earlier into England. Here the Irish King came to seek aid from Henry II, who, as he had with Godred, agreed in principle to support the Irishman but had no way of getting troops over to Ireland.
Diarmait then sought out the aid of a small cabal of Welsh based Cambro-Norman mercenary landowners who were experienced in Irish/Irish-Norse Sea based warfare and who agreed to aid him. Their price seems to have been Diarmait agreeing that the Cambro-Norman’s could claim the ports of Waterford and Wexford in return for fighting for him.
(I go into detail about this in a separate post )
What followed was a messy bushfire war; almost in-spite of themselves the cambro-Norman’s managed to take Dublin. Here, Diarmait dies and the leading mercenary commander, Richard de Clare, claims the title of High King based upon his marriage with Diarmait’s daughter. This was not a serious claim, but was done in order to maintain a legal justification for the mercenaries to hold Waterford and/or Wexford after the fighting was over.
The Irish, and King Ruaidhrí Ó Conchobhair, were having none of it, and Rory built up his forces in order to crush this minor annoyance once and for all. While he was doing so however, a small event that would change the course of Irish history forever took place.
The Fall of The Fleet of Dublin
When Diarmait was exiled, Kingship of Dublin fell to one Ascall mac Ragnaill meic Torcaill, supposedly a leading member of the Ostman Dublin community and possibly one of the men who had invited Godfred to become King of the city a decade or so previously.
Ascall (and by extension Dublin) had proven themselves to be loyal supporters of Rory since he took the title. But the sudden attack on the city had surprised the residents. Understand how significant the attack in Dublin was. The mercenaries has began by taking Wexford, then Waterford and now Dublin- three of the main east coast ports.
They had gained this foothold by using/hiring what ships they could but in all cases their numbers were quite small. The first wave had seen only 500 Cambo-Norman’s arrive (where Diarmait had doubled that number with his own supporters). The second wave led by De Clare was larger, maybe 1000 men, but the logistics of it were so difficult that De Clare had to take out a loan from Jewish moneylenders to afford the invasion fleet.
Indeed, my personal belief (not corroborated) was that the reason De Clare married Diarmait’s daughter after he had arrived and not before he left, was perhaps due to there being uncertainty over him being able to arrive at all.
Whatever the case, it is also clear that even after they took Waterford and Wexford, the small mercenary force did NOT have a large body of ships at their disposal. Which possibly explains away their attack upon Dublin.
One, they took an inland route to get to the port, not the easier method of sailing there or taking an army supported by a fleet up the coast road (which was what Rory had expected), suggesting they didn’t have access to ships.
Secondly, it opens the possibility that they wanted Dublin to get access to her fleet, the largest in Ireland at the time.
The Cambro-Norman’s however were still land based and this became the flaw in their plan; whatever the reason to match in Dublin, they had taken the city by land, leaving Ascall and his mighty Dublin fleet free to escape... which is what they did.
Straight to Godred.
While the exact location of where the Dublin fleet fled is contested (some saying they went as far as Orkney) it would seem unlikely given the short time elapsed in the following sequence of events they would that far; Mann was able to allow the Dublin fleet regroup close at hand and Godfred and Ascall probably knew each other. The Isle of Mann was also close enough to warrant an easy return, while maintaining communications with Ireland, so it is reasonable to assume the Dublin fleet sailed to Godred.
All they had to do was hang on until the Irish consolidated their forces and drove out the occupiers.
And yet, here, the Dubliners then made a massive mistake. High King Ruaidhrí was trying to organise his forces to besiege Dublin, but Ascall wasn’t willing to wait. He unilaterally returned to Dublin with his fleet and, in May 1171, attacked the mercenaries there. The attack was an utter failure and Ascall was killed and his fleet destroyed/captured.
The High King now has an issue- if he marched an army to Dublin to besiege it, the mercenaries there could escape by sea back down to Waterford to reconsolidate their power. It was for this reason that the High King instructed the Archbishop of Dublin to contact Godred with an offer.
This is why when the Irish brought a massive force to besiege the foreign occupied city, Godred arrived in Dublin bay with his powerful fleet, helping to place a noose around the Welsh mercenaries, which (the plan went) would end this small, annoying, war once and for all.
The siege, however, failed, and the Irish High King now found himself unable to effectively deal with this matter. Desperate for a solution he sought the one remaining man who could aid him deal with these foreigners. The great Plantagenet King, Henry II.
There was just one problem. Henry II didn’t have a fleet. He couldn’t get to Ireland to ‘deal’ with the men nominally under his control. The Irish needed to get him here. And there was only one man who could facilitate it- Godred.
While it appears Godred was possibly reluctant at first, given the support of the church and possibly with some financial incentive, Godred offered his fleet to the English.
The arrival of Henry
Henry was not a man to do things in a half hearted way. He was, at this time, at the height of his powers. It is always easy to assume Henry was the first ‘English king’ to invade Ireland, but its also untrue.
Henry rules a vast Empire, has been completely focused on curbing his rival the King of France; had spent a large amount of time taking over Brittany, and by all accounts was intending to divide his huge empire between his sons (with the likes of Richard gaining Aquitaine while his older brother Henry (Young Henry as he was known, and whose coronation Godred had possibly attended), gaining England).
His interest in Ireland was predicated upon simple politics: it was outside his area of control. De Clare and his men were operating beyond his reach and it was possible that they could create an independent state (while De Clare’s claim to High Kingship was tenuous at best, it remained a possibility). Henry therefore sought to bring enough men who crush his errant Cambro-Norman’s.
Only Godred’s fleet was large enough to facilitate the movement of the King. He made sure it was at Henry’s disposal and ferried across to Waterford a huge force. The best way to understand the shock and awe Henry inspired is to consider this.
For two years Ireland had been plagued by a vicious bushfire war caused by the fighting prowess of at most 1500 of these men.
Henry now turned up with a force 4,000 men at arms, 200 knights (and horses) and even a series of siege engines (in case DeClare decided to hold out in Dublin). It was, without doubt, the manifestation of staggering amounts of power.
Godred facilitates this transport and witnessed something immediately. Without making a single threat, without any attack, this show of force intimidated the Normans in Waterford. It also intimidated the Kings of Desmond who swore allegiance to Henry at once (possibly in the hope that Henry would not attack them) before Henry travels to Dublin.
Here Henry made his true powerplay, not only gaining submission from De Clare but also in quick order, the Kings of Leinster, Meath, Ulster, Airgílla (Oriel) and Breifne. He coupled this show of force with a surprise weapon- the authority to ‘reform’ the church in Ireland.
Using this as his basis, Henry began the ‘conquest’ of Ireland. He used the Church to press a claim for overlordship of the entire island, which while not enforced by arms, was enforced by rule of (his) law.
For Godred however, this capitulation, coupled with the legitimacy granted Henry by the Pope made his next decision an easy one to make.
Henry was, in effect, trapped in Ireland. He would need to leave. Godred could withdraw his ships and strand him there.
But the Kingdom of Mann faced the massive Plantagenet Empire now being effective rulers of the Irish Sea. The Scots were cowed and with Godred’s fleets help, the Welsh would be curtailed also. A new world order was taking place before his eyes.
Mann now had a choice- remain part of the chaotic world that had seen him lose Mann twice, be exiled twice, and endlessly partake in chaotic warfare... or ally with a strong, stable and powerful regime who were looking for a fleet to facilitate control of the Irish Sea.
Godred Olafson, adventurer, became a happy client to the Plantagenet regime and it is now his influence on Ireland really grew, facilitating and aiding the conquest of the region.
The Son In Law
A measure of the new accord Godred entered into can be found in the marriage of his daughter Affrica to a newly arrived adventurer, John de Courcy.
6 years after Henry’s brief visit, Godred aided John with his planned conquest of Ulaid; it was Godred’s ships who brought John to Carlingford; it was his ships who kept De Courcy supplied and it was most probably Godfred who facilitated his domination and conquest of Antrim and Down.
Understand, as the Anglo-Norman’s has began to expand their control beyond Dublin, the most obvious target was the Kingdom of Airgialla, the Ulster based petty kingdom that forms much of Louth today; De Courcy leapfrogged this region to focus on Ulaid, effectively making it an isolated ‘colony’. He filled it with colonists from Cumbria (located just the other side of Mann, and a region of England, where the ‘saxons’ had long intermarried and had strong ties to the Norse-Irish (at its height, the Ostmen of Dublin had taken the region in their attempt to link Dublin with York)).
The union with Godred’s daughter also meant that while a foreigner, De Courcy was now able to call upon and be part of the long standing family ties in the region; he was supported by Irishmen who were opposed to the Uí Neíll, many of whom he was now related to by marriage.
While it can be seen that De Courcy was an Englishman invader subjugating the Irish people, he was also now part of a series of local dynastic feuds, supported by the most powerful sea power, and behind the narrative of England invading Ireland, there was an equally valid one of this being all about local Irish/Irish Sea politics written large.
Certainly, beyond this union, becoming allies with the rule of Henry II saw Godred and Mann enter a period of stability and safety it had never known. Godred’s ships were the early backbone of the conquest, moving men and resources across the waters, and when, for example, Henry made granted Dublin to the men of Bristol (forcing a mass expulsion of the Ostmen residents), it had been Godfred’s ships who had provided initial protection for them.
In all ways that count, it can be observed without the crucial support on Godred Olafsun, the English invasion of Ireland and the systematic way they consolidated power along the East Coast, would never have taken place.
When he died on St Patrick’s Island (a small island just off the coast of Mann, probably the location of the royal residence), in 1187, Godred was around 50 years old.
His life had been extraordinary, worthy of a saga or two, but it was the events of the latter part of his life, and his role in facilitating the conquest of Ireland, that marks him out beyond a mere footnote in history.
The benefits to Mann for his decision to support the Plantagenet King is proven by the long, peaceful and successful rule of his son.
The above is my own take on the man and his times. I usually specialise in the wars of the Tudor period, so I will accept correction by those with greater expertise in 12th century Ireland.
Sources: *Parker, P (2014). ‘The Northman’s Fury: a History if the Viking World’
Duffy, S (1994). ‘Pre-Norman Dublin: Capital of Ireland’; History Ireland; December.
Duffy, S (1996). "Ulster and the Irish Sea Region in the Twelfth Century" (PDF). Group for the Study of Irish Historic Settlement.
McDonald, R. Andrew (2008). ‘Manx kingship in its Irish Sea setting, 1187-1229. King Rognvaldr and the Crovan dynasty’
Curtis, E (1988). ‘Norse Dublin’ Dublin Historical Revord. June 1988*
submitted by thefeckamIdoing to IrishHistory [link] [comments]


2020.04.28 16:21 TheJvandy A guide to Real Estate's Discography

Realized a lot of artist-oriented subs usually have some sort of guide to the artist's discography, so I figured I would do that for this one. I've included all the music that has had an official release by the band, as well as the music of the individual band members as they don't fall too far from the music of the band itself. I've also tried to keep a running tab of who worked on which albums, as the band has had some changes in its lineup and there is a lot of overlap in the side-projects of the individual band members as well. I did a fair bit of research to find everything here, but please let me know if I've missed anything and I will add it to the list!
Real Estate
Albums
  1. Beach Comber
  2. Pool Swimmers (Duguay on Bongos, Bleeker on guitar, Mondanile on keys)
  3. Suburban Dogs (Mondanile on keys)
  4. Black Lake (Courtney on bass/drums)
  5. Atlantic City (Written by Mondanile) (Bleeker on drums)
  6. Fake Blues
  7. Green River (Courtney on bass/percussion)
  8. Suburban Beverage (Courtney on percussion)
  9. Let's Rock The Beach (Written by Mondanile)
  10. Snow Days

  1. Green River
  2. Younger Than Yesterday
  3. Fake Blues
  4. Beach Comber
  5. Let's Rock The Beach
  6. Suburban Beverage
  7. Basement
  8. The Mall
  9. Atlantic City
  10. Black Lake

  1. Easy (Samuel Franklin on drums)
  2. Green Aisles
  3. It's Real (Samuel Franklin on drums)
  4. Kinder Blumen (written by Mondanile)
  5. Out Of Tune (Etienne Pierre Duguay on drums, Daniel Lopatin on synth)
  6. Municipality
  7. Wonder Years (written by Bleeker)
  8. Three Blocks
  9. Younger Than Yesterday
  10. All The Same (Samuel Franklin on drums)


  1. Had to Hear
  2. Past Lives
  3. Talking Backwards
  4. April's Song (Written by Mondanile)
  5. The Bend
  6. Crime (Written by Courtney and Mondanile)
  7. Primitive
  8. How Might I Live (Written by Bleeker)
  9. Horizon
  10. Navigator (Julian Lynch on clarinet)

  1. Darling
  2. Serve The Song
  3. Stained Glass
  4. After The Moon
  5. Two Arrows
  6. White Light
  7. Holding Pattern
  8. Time
  9. Diamond Eyes (vocals by Bleeker)
  10. Same Sun
  11. Saturday

  1. Friday
  2. Paper Cup (String Arrangement by Jane Scarpantoni) (Vocals by Sylvan Esso)
  3. Gone
  4. You
  5. November
  6. Falling Down (String Arrangement by Jane Scarpantoni)
  7. Also A But (Vocals by Julian Lynch)
  8. The Main Thing
  9. Shallow Sun
  10. Sting
  11. Silent World (String Arrangement by Courtney)
  12. Procession (String Arrangement by Ryder McNair)
  13. Brother

EPs & Singles
  1. Fake Blues
  2. Pool Swimmers

  1. Motorbikes
  2. Basement
  3. Drum
  4. Saturday Morning
  5. Younger Than Yesterday
  6. Dumb Luck

  1. Suburban Beverage
  2. Black Lake
  3. Old Folks

  1. Atlantic City
  2. Beach Comber
  3. Pool Swimmers
  4. Suburban Dogs
  5. Saturday Morning

  1. Out of Tune (Daniel Lopatin on keys)
  2. Reservoir #3

  1. Suburban Dogs (Real Estate)
  2. Killin The Vibe (Ducktails)
  3. Never Going Back (Alex Bleeker and the Freaks)
  4. Beach Comber (Real Estate)
  5. Sit Around With Ya (Ducktails)
  6. Part 2 (Alex Bleeker and the Freaks)

  1. It's Real
  2. Blue LeBaron

  1. Green Aisles

  1. Municipality

  1. Easy (Samuel Franklin on drums)
  2. Exactly Nothing

  1. Had to Hear
  2. Paper Dolls (Cover of song by The Nerves)

  1. Talking Backwards
  2. Beneath The Dunes (written by Mondanile)

  1. Crime

  1. The Chancellor
  2. Recreation

  1. Stained Glass
  2. Two Part, Part Two

Appearances
  1. Teachers (Class McCombs)
  2. In My Car (Real Estate)
  3. You Against The Larger World (Dirty Projectors)
  4. Shards (Villagers)
  5. No Title (John Maus)

  1. Is This It (Peter Bjorn & John)
  2. The Modern Age (Chelsea Wolfe)
  3. Soma (Frankie Rose)
  4. Barely Legal (Real Estate)
  5. Someday (Wise Blood)
  6. Alone, Together (Austra)
  7. Last Night (the morning benders)
  8. Hard To Explain (Owen Pallett)
  9. New York City Cops (Heems)
  10. Trying Your Luck (Deradoorian)
  11. Take It or Leave It (Computer Magic)

Alex Bleeker & The Freaks
  1. Summer
  2. Eplilogue
  3. Spring Jam
  4. Animal Tracks (cover of song by Mountain Man)
  5. Prisoner Of The Past
  6. Dead On
  7. Common Sense
  8. Part Two

  1. Don't Look Down (Jackson Pollis on drums, Jarvis Taveniere on keys and vocals)
  2. See You On Sunday
  3. Leave On The Light (Jackson Pollis on drums, Jacob Wolf on keys, Gerald Menke on pedal steel, Amelia Meath on vocals
  4. Home I Love (Gerald Menke on pedal steel
  5. Time Cloud
  6. Who Are You Seeing? (Sam Franklin on drums, Jacob Wolf on keys, Amelia Meath on vocals
  7. Rhythm Shakers (Karl Marx Bauer on drums, Jacob Wolf on keys, Alex Steinberg on guitar, Amelia Meath on vocals
  8. All My Songs (Kevin Morby on vocals)
  9. Steve's Theme
  10. Step Right Up (Pour Yourself Some Wine) (Sam Franklin on drums, Jacob Wolf on keys, Amelia Meath on vocals
  11. Love Fadeaway (Jackson Pollis on drums, Gerald Menke on pedal steel, Amelia Meath on vocals, Jarvis Taveniere on guitar)

  1. Little Dream I Had
  2. California
  3. Country Agenda
  4. Portrait
  5. Downright Stinson
  6. The Rest
  7. Sealong Hair
  8. Honey, I Don't Know
  9. The Wind
  10. Turtle Dove
  11. U.H.M.
  12. They've Gone Home

Alex Bleeker
Albums
  1. Mesa Blue
  2. Bet Your Ass
  3. Drinkin and Drivin'
  4. Psychic Outlaw
  5. Razor-Tongue Woman (Jeff Manson on pedal steel)
  6. Faith Children (written by Kyle Field)

Singles & EPs
  1. Untitled
  2. Untitled

  1. Getting By
  2. These Days
  3. Never Going Back

  1. Epilogue
  2. Life Of The Party
  3. Maple Field
  4. New Hampshire
  5. I Wish I Had A Guitar
  6. Rotation
  7. Part 2

Julian Lynch
Albums
  1. Banana Jam Pt. 1
  2. New Vole
  3. Mount Rushmore
  4. Caruth
  5. Droplet on a Hot Stone
  6. River
  7. Banana Jam Pt. 2
  8. Juicy

  1. Venom
  2. Winterer One
  3. Andaza
  4. Rancher
  5. Mercury
  6. The Flood
  7. Winter Two
  8. Seed

  1. Just Enough
  2. Mare
  3. A Day At The Racetrack
  4. Stomper
  5. Interlude
  6. Still Racing
  7. Ears
  8. Ruth, My Sister
  9. Travelers
  10. In New Jersey

  1. Terra
  2. Clay Horses
  3. Fort Collins
  4. Canopy
  5. Water Wheel One
  6. Ground
  7. On Eastern Time
  8. Water Wheel Two
  9. Disappointment
  10. Back

  1. In New Jersey
  2. Perry
  3. Basement (with Jessica Calvanico and Gregory Campanile)
  4. Duet With Eileen Dorfman
  5. Wake
  6. Stifflements, Ronflements, Et Renaclements
  7. Terra
  8. Garden 3
  9. Harmonium
  10. Birthday Song
  11. Dixmont
  12. Waiting Music
  13. Es's
  14. Terra

  1. Going
  2. Carios Kelleyi I
  3. Horse Chestnut
  4. Yawning
  5. Lines
  6. North Line
  7. Carios Kelleyi II
  8. Gloves
  9. Onions
  10. Shadow

  1. Catapulting
  2. Meridian
  3. Rat's Spit
  4. Floater
  5. Peanut Butter
  6. Baa
  7. Strawberry Cookies
  8. Hexagonal Field
  9. Reallu

Singles & EPs
  1. Parasailing
  2. Topi
  3. Garden

  1. Droplet On A Hot Stone
  2. Nen Vole

  1. Natalie Barney's Salon
  2. Temple Dance
  3. Dream Of A Thousand Nights
  4. Dance Of The Seven Veils

Martin Courtney
Albums
  1. Awake (Martin Courtney on drums)
  2. Foto (Samara Lubelski on Violin)
  3. Vestiges (Patrick Hopkins on cello, Matthew Sinno on viola, Jonathon Miron on violin)
  4. Before We Begin (Patrick Hopkins on cello, Matthew Sinno on viola, Jonathon Miron & Greg Cardi on violin)
  5. Northern Highway (Patrick Hopkins on cello, Matthew Sinno on viola, Jonathon Miron & Greg Cardi on violin, Jake Chabot on flute)
  6. Many Moons (Patrick Hopkins on cello, Matthew Sinno on viola, Jonathon Miron & Greg Cardi on violin, Jake Chabot on flute)
  7. Asleep (Samara Lubelski on Violin, Martin Courtney on Organ)
  8. Little Blue
  9. Focus (Martin Courtney on organ)
  10. Airport Bar

Pario Marty
Albums
  1. I Will Be (composed by Brian Wilson)
  2. Old Folks
  3. Dumb Luck
  4. Nothing
  5. The Crystals
  6. Brief Return
  7. The Zoo
  8. Look Outside

Ducktails
Albums
  1. Backyard
  2. Beach Point Pleasant
  3. Horizon
  4. Friends
  5. Dancing With The One You Love (Etienne Pierre Duguay on bass)
  6. Gem
  7. Daily Vacation
  8. The Mall
  9. Surf's Up (Etienne Pierre Duguay on flute)

  1. Tropical Heat
  2. Backyard
  3. The Mall
  4. Afternoon Tray Sliders
  5. Floating
  6. Island Flavor
  7. Let's Rock The Beach
  8. Status Quo
  9. Udelco
  10. Neptune City, NJ

  1. On The Boardwalk
  2. Landrunner
  3. Roses
  4. Welcome Home (I'm Back)
  5. Deck Observatory
  6. Spring
  7. Oh, Magnolia Tree
  8. Wishes
  9. Seagull's Flight
  10. House of Mirrors

  1. Backyard
  2. Beach Point Pleasant
  3. The Mall
  4. Let's Rock The Beach
  5. Extended Jam
  6. Surf's Up

  1. In The Swing
  2. Hamilton Road
  3. Sprinter
  4. The Razor's Edge
  5. Sunset Liner (written by Emma Young)
  6. Little Window
  7. Killin The Vibe (Dent May on drums/vocals, Jarvis Taveniere on vocals, bass, and guitar)
  8. Arcade Shift
  9. Don't Make Plans (Sam Franklin on drums)
  10. Art Vandelay (Jarvis Taveniere on vocals)
  11. Porch Projector

  1. Ivy Covered House
  2. The Flower Lane
  3. Under Cover
  4. Timothy Shy
  5. Planet Phrom (Cover of song by Peter Gutteridge)
  6. Assistant Director
  7. Sedan Magic (Madeline Follin on vocals)
  8. International Date Line
  9. Letter of Intent (Jesse Farkas on vocals)
  10. Academy Avenue

  1. The Disney Afternoon
  2. Headbanging in the Mirror
  3. Into The Sky
  4. Heaven's Room
  5. St. Catherine
  6. The Laughing Woman
  7. Surreal Exposure
  8. Church (written by Julia Holter)
  9. Medieval
  10. Krumme Lanke
  11. Reprise

  1. Map To The Stars (Samira Winter on vocals)
  2. Light A Candle (Malcolm Oliver on vocals)
  3. In The Hallway
  4. Keeper Of The Garden
  5. Solitary Star (Malcolm Oliver on guitavocals)
  6. Lover (co-written with John Anderson)
  7. Mannequin (Malcolm Oliver on guitar)
  8. Wearing A Mask
  9. Shattered Mirror Travel
  10. The Rising Sun (co-written with John Anderson)

  1. Answered in a Prayer
  2. Watercolors
  3. Deal With It
  4. Blue Light
  5. The Ocean Floor
  6. Lip Service
  7. The Curtain's Moon
  8. Confession
  9. Olympic Air
  10. Bad Guy

Singles & EPs
  1. Crystal Vision
  2. Pizza Time
  3. Rhubarb Girl
  4. Theme To "Cruisin"
  5. Vanaselian (Trees)
  6. Double Dream

  1. Side A
  2. Side B

  1. White House With Green Shutters
  2. Surfs Up

  1. Untitled
  2. Untitled

  1. Untitled
  2. Untitled

  1. Beach Point Pleasant
  2. Pizza Time
  3. Gem Pt. 1
  4. Gem Pt. 2

  1. Parasailing
  2. Topi
  3. Garden

  1. Apple Walk
  2. Mirror Image

  1. Intro
  2. Sitting
  3. Art Vandelay

  1. Paisley Pattern
  2. Arcade Shift
  3. The Bride of Marin

  1. Screen Scene
  2. Gone By Dawn

  1. Killin the Vibe (Dent May, Jarvis Taveniere, and Panda Bear on vocals)
  2. Sit Around With Ya
  3. Couch Surfer
  4. Killing the Vibe (Live) (With Spectrals)

  1. Tie-Dye
  2. Honey Tiger Eyes
  3. Wish Hotel
  4. Jazz
  5. Naïve Music

  1. Comfort
  2. Exotica

  1. Plastic Melody
  2. Squirrel in the Yard (Auto Tune)

  1. New Dream
  2. Electric Day
  3. Smoke Ring Day

Compilations
  1. Crystal Vision
  2. Pizza Time
  3. Rhubarb Girl
  4. Theme To Cruising
  5. Double Dream
  6. Vanaselian (Trees)
  7. Why Am I Here?
  8. Extending Self
  9. Chill Jam
  10. Sun Out My Window
  11. Tropical Heat
  12. Backyard
  13. The Mall
  14. Afternoon Tray Sliders
  15. Boating
  16. Island Flavor
  17. Let's Rock The Beach
  18. Status Quo
  19. Udelco
  20. Neptune City, NJ
  21. Dreams In Mirror Field (Excerpt)

  1. Prelude
  2. Jane
  3. Prelude
  4. The Patio
  5. The Mockingbird
  6. Don't Want To Let You Know
  7. The Conversation
  8. Carousel
  9. San Gabriel Valley
  10. Running Out Of Love
  11. Angel Wings
  12. Cemetery Dance
  13. Venetian Song
  14. x66

  1. Light Upon The Hill
  2. Tomorrow
  3. Martin Kippenberger
  4. Exotica
  5. G F Bass
  6. Two-Way Mirror
  7. Comfort
  8. Slow Wit
  9. Car Delivered
  10. Saturday
  11. Living In The Dark
  12. I Don't Mind
  13. Nov 17th
  14. Convertible
  15. Flying in Neutral Like A Magic Carpet Ride

  1. Smoking in The Rental
  2. Another Decision
  3. Young Love
  4. Never Look Back
  5. Anna, Anna
  6. Bottom Of My Heart
  7. Catch A Rising Star
  8. Church (Demo)
  9. Waiting On Your Love
  10. Chandelier
  11. The Cathedral
  12. Olympic Air (Demo)
  13. Skiing With Polanski
  14. Evil Angel
  15. You Can't Kill The Dead
  16. Wish I Had A Home
  17. Autumn Type Beat
  18. Photograph
  19. Holier Than Thou
  20. Immortal Nymph
  21. Type Of Guy
  22. Shoelace
  23. Be Gone
  24. Venus
  25. Champagne
  26. Debauchery
  27. Fucking In The Sky
  28. Let's Air It Out
  29. One Day
  30. Plastic Melody (Demo)
submitted by TheJvandy to RealEstateTheBand [link] [comments]


2020.01.29 20:52 louiseber [Updated Jan 2020] How many Irish Subs are there really?

The first time I made this post I had uncovered 500+ Irish related subs on reddit, from the abandoned to the large. This was some time in 2016ish and I have continued to try and track as many new subs as I can.
Below is the updated list, again including some of the Discord Servers & useful other external links (although not counted) and the count stands at 710 plus some redirects/banned subs/karma farms. I have also continued to included some of the North American Subs that could be mistaken for Irish just for information.
As you can see from the notations many, many of them are inactive but it's more about finding as many of them as possible than anything else.
If anyone knows of, or can find, new ones not listed below, throw them in the comments and I'll add them to the list. A rich vein of new ones continue to be towns etc, people from Ireland (bands etc) and products.
To any owners of Discords that appear on this list or not, let me know of perma invitation links as I know some of the below have expired but I'd rather have them as reminders/ place holders than not.
Notes:
To anyone who owns a sub...put a description in the bleedin' sidebar! (Growing is easier if people don't have to guess what the sub is for)
If you find a sub you might like to resurrect you can head over the /redditrequest and request to take it over. See their sidebar for full rules and process.
(P) = Currently Private Sub
(O) = Out of Use
(m) = Authors Notation
(NI) = Northern Ireland
(R) = Redirects

Visiting & Moving to Ireland

Also see ‘Hobbies & Interests’ and ‘Locations’ below.
General Discords

Irish Language/ As Gaeilge Subs

History & Heritage

Media, Music & Art

Media Discussion
News Subs
Media Creatives
Music
Underground Film & Music
Instruments
Dance
Art, Design & Visual

IT, Developers & Tech

Developers
Infrastructure
Data & Crypto
PC Parts
Gaming
  • See below

LGBT

Womens Issues

Teens

Health & Well-being Issues

Education Subs

Second Level
Third Level
Clubs/ Societies & College Interests

Political Parties/ Discussion

Discussions
Parties
State Institutions
Political Issues
Political Satire
Pol Discords

Model Government & Related Subs

Model Houses & Parties
Model Media
Model Meta & Misc

Religion & Religious Issues

Sports

GAA
Football
Teams
Fans Subs
Rugby
Other Sports

Jobs

Legal, Financial & Property

Legal
** Legal System**
Financial
Community Assistance
Bargains & For Sale
Earn Credit
Property

Transport

Rail
Buses
MotorBikes
Cars

Hobbies & Interests

Drug Culture
Vaping
Books
Board Gaming
Crafts
Computer Gaming
Discords
Tech Interests
Food & Drink
Dating & Social Groups
Events
Outdoor Activities
Weapons Enthusiasts
Fun Subs
Fun Discords
Places to Moan
Fandom Subs
Celtic Subs
Discords
NSFW Adulty Subs
Meta & Alternative Ireland Subs
Misc Defunct/ Unknown Content

Ireland not local enough for ya? Subscribe to:

Locations

Counties
Cities/ Towns/ Townlands
Areas
Northern Ireland
Ex-Pat Communities
Location Based Discords

Sandboxes

Not Irish Subs

  • Irish Subs Count: 710 + 9
submitted by louiseber to ireland [link] [comments]


2020.01.09 20:49 AZ_Steve Probably a long shot, but anyone have guesses at what I've done wrong fighting a war?

I've been playing around with Irish with the older start date. I noticed some fighting happening around Meath and saw that a German leader had taken some land over there. A lot of the local Irish tribes were fighting so I click around and see that I can declare war on the Germanic Pagan leader.
I decide should I join someone's war or just declare war myself? Not knowing really what the difference is I figured I would just declare war myself and maybe I won't have to share spoils of war with the other leaders if I win.
I raise my levies. I tell my council to try and whip up some some raiders, zealous fighters, and build my legend. I march my 700 or so troops up to Meath to jump into the existing fights.
Some of the council events triggered, not sure which. The Germans and his allies have big armies. I lose a fight. I retreat. I look around for smaller armies and attach them. I win a couple fights.
Some sort of pop up happens which I thought said I captured a prisoner, but I don't have a prisoner, so maybe someone took someone from my court prisoner. Anyway I spend some time disbanding my levies, reinforce, raise the levy again and head back out. Fighting is all the way up in the Isle of Mann area. I'm trying guerilla like warfare spotting places I can win and hitting when the opportunity is there.
I notice the war score in the bottom right is gone. Last I saw it was a -10%. I'm not a war with any of the Irish rulers and I'm wandering around mostly Argyll and Iona fighting smaller armies. I end up capturing someone for sure that is a member of the petty kingdom of the Isles. My army is generally just standing around so I walk them back home and disband.
I didn't earn any new territory. I can't even really be sure what I have done. Except that a ton of the local Irish are now hostile at me for looting and raiding. Except as far as I can tell I never toggled anyone army to be raiders/looters. I never fought any Irish armies.
I'm so confused what the heck just happened. Did my marshal organize a raid and just the fact that I walked them through Irish lands not held by me trigger looting?
Should I have just joined someone else's war with them?
I suck at this game. I felt like my armies were just roaming around trying to figure out if the armies all over the map were friendly or not. And then spent a lot of time standing around idle in counties thinking I'm helping with a siege, but I don't think I was actually doing anything because someone else's army started the siege first.
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2019.11.22 21:16 stroke_bot indyl uralitization biliary orangite rupia

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submitted by stroke_bot to nullthworldproblems [link] [comments]


2019.11.16 04:56 stroke_bot cobwebbier knobbier religions isobath reinvigorate invised vermiformis contribution

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2019.10.29 10:15 CheraDukatZakalwe New commuter belt school fails to open due to zero enrolments

EDIT: turns out much of this story is due to a residential development which has hit delays, and as such will probably be filled up in the 2020 school year.
https://www.irishtimes.com/news/education/new-commuter-belt-school-fails-to-open-due-to-zero-enrolments-1.4064360
Lack of demand casts doubt on Department of Education’s planning by demographics Mon, Oct 28, 2019, 01:41 Carl O'Brien Education Editor
The opening of a new school in a busy commuter belt area of Co Meath has been deferred because it did not enrol any pupils.
The Department of Education fast-tracked the construction of Dunshaughlin Community National School earlier this year based on its demographic projections which indicated there was an urgent need for a new school.
However, the eight-classroom school did not open in September as planned, due to a lack of enrolments.
A teacher who was hired has since been redeployed, while a new school principal is processing enrolments for the coming year.
It was one of 42 new schools announced by the Government which are being built between now and 2022.
Fianna Fail’s education spokesman Thomas Byrne said the development raised questions over the accuracy of the department’s school population figures.
By contrast, a new school in the Ashbourne area of Co Meath – which, Mr Byrne said, the department only agreed to build following representations from oversubscribed local schools and public representatives – was heavily subscribed.
“Ashbourne Community National School is thriving. The latest figures show it has 94 pupils enrolled,” he said.
Measuring methods “We were told by the department that the demographics didn’t support the construction of a new school in Ashbourne. In the end, it took a delegation of local schools to the department, as well as local representatives, to convince the department that we needed it,” he said,
“I’m not convinced that the department’s methods for measuring the demand for new schools is fully accurate or that it is taking into account all new local housing developments.”
In a statement, a spokesman for the department said information on school enrolments and child-benefit data allows it to map where children are living or attending school.
“This information provides a degree of certainty in projecting demand in an area in future years,” the spokesman said.
He said, as part of this exercise, the department engages with local authorities to obtain up-to-date information on significant new residential development.
Residential development “The pace of completion of planned housing and occupancy of houses is by its nature less predictable and can vary.
“Accordingly, while the department takes into account planned additional residential development, the timing of completion of such development can be subject to change depending on local circumstances.”
It said while the patron of the new school in Dunshaughlin, Louth Meath Education and Training Board, had confirmed there were no enrolments for the 2019/2020 school year, it expected enrolments from a new local housing development which has been delayed.
It added that the patron has received “significant interest” for September 2020 enrolments for the new school.
In the context of further strengthening the demographic analysis process, the department said it intended to have additional engagement with patron bodies in relation to their local knowledge on school place requirements.
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2019.09.06 20:28 Henry1502inc Can I get your opinions?

I asked and got permission to post this 2 days ago.
I started working on an idea that would merge the bachelor and dating apps. The idea is dating sucks mostly because people aren’t honest with themselves or others and have inflated egos. So I sought out to fix this. I wanted an app meant primarily for those actually serious about relation. Here’s the concept
The app has two sections, one for hookups, the other for relationships. If you are in the hookup section, there shall be no talks about not knowing what you want or looking for a friend, or you’ll be banned for 3 months to permanently from the section. I’m looking at you girls. When your in the relationship section, there shall be no overly explicit talk of hookups, I’m looking at you men.
Each season is the equivalent of a full calendar year or 7 episodes. An episode is the equivalent of 30-50 days depending on if and when you get eliminated. You have to pick one section per episode (50 days).
You get 5 matches at the start of an episode. You eliminate one match every Wednesday, try to set up dates for the weekend, and review your matches and dates before moving on towards the next elimination round. Your match can also eliminate you from their pool of people so theoretically it forces people to try harder because there’s competition and because your limited in choice you don’t feel overwhelmed. Every day you arrange your matches in order from most interested to least so theoretically the person in last position gets eliminated every Wednesday by midnight. The selling point is, if you commit fully to the app, you should have a real relationship or at least genuine connection with someone by episode 3. You save time, you get quality people. That’s the gist.
This is the long version.
Zero Day: Who are you User fills out extensive questionnaire meant to flesh out who they are as a person and what they’re looking for. 2400 questions broken up into 8 sections such as Personality, History, Education, Interests, Hobbies, Goals, Relationships, Sex, Politics, Religion, Gender, Culture, This app. It’s not supposed to be easy. The system is AI heavy meaning everything you do goes in an algorithm Meath to pair you with the best match possible which is why you should be completely open and honest with your responses to questions asked.
Day 1: Round one, Meet your matches User is presented with 5 people based on the info provided. Their pictures along with a few other details such as work and school are hidden. The user will be asked everyday to rank each person based on how interested they are in them. The users most interested will be 1, while the least will be last, or in this case 5th. The person designated as last will be in danger of being eliminated. The other people will not know about their ranking unless they pay to unlock this feature.
Day 3: First round eliminations User must eliminate one of their five suitors. User should start trying to plan and confirm dates with their suitors. They can create their own or choose from preselected options we have offered. For example, if they are outdoors people, they can choose to do a bike hike in Arlington along with other groups on the app who are also on dates.
Day 5-7: Second round date nights Although dates can be planned throughout the week, we encourage them to happen within the weekends for amply affect. After a date has happened, the suitors profile will be unlocked along with their pictures and videos. After a date, both users can review each other independently on the app. Questions asked may be, do they look like their pictures, age, height? Did you feel a connection, were they on time, list one thing you liked and disliked about them. This is how the algorithm can start to figure out if your answers are truthful or not. You and your suitor can plan your own date or you can select one of our curated date options. For example, say you both like outdoors activities, you can both go biking on a trail together alongside other couples on the app also on dates. Or you can meetup at a restaurant or bar that will also have others from the app on dates as well. Think of this as a community.
Day 10: Second round eliminations User must eliminate one of their four suitors.
Day 12-14: Third round date nights Date night with suitors.
Day 17: Third round eliminations User must eliminate one of their three suitors.
Day 19-21: Fourth round date nights Date night with suitors.
Day 24: Fourth round eliminations User must eliminate one of their two suitors. If both users select each other as their #1, they will officially be listed as a match. We recommend they plan date night to experience life without options and to see if they are happy with their choice.
Day 26-28: Fifth round date night, Honeymoon Date night with #1.
Day 31: Fifth and final elimination If both users are happy with their choice after date night, they will be announced winners and will no longer be shown new people. If either one chooses to eliminate the other, they will be asked to give a detailed reason. Both will go back to the pool to be rematched for the upcoming episode. The eliminating person can purchase the feature to request a date with their second suitor from last round. The suitor can only accept one request from all of their matches. If the fourth round suitor agrees, they will go on a date and be asked if they want to eliminate or if they are happy.
Bonus: Day 33-35: Redemption date night Date with fourth round suitor who was eliminated.
Bonus: Day 38: Redemption elimination round If both users are happy with their choice after date night, they will be announced winners and will no longer be shown new people. If either one chooses to eliminate the other, they will be asked to give a detailed reason. Both will go back to the pool to be rematched for the upcoming episode.
Day 32-39: Review the episode All users will be asked to review their experience of the episode and to provide feedback. They will also be asked new or re-asked questions based on feedback given by their suitors in order to make sure next episodes suitors are a better fit.
Day 49: Couples Retreat Matching users will be invited to an exclusive couples only event for their date night. They will be able to talk about their experiences and why they chose their partner over the competition.
Day 50: New episode. Cycle repeats
Payments/Revenue
Episode casting - $100 In order to be cast for an episode every user must pay.
Season casting - $500 Payment grants access to participate in all 7 episodes within a season or the remaining episodes in a season. Pro-rated refunds are only granted if user wins an episode.
Message read - $4.99 per user This feature displays whether or not the selected suitor has read your message. Timestamp included.
Last active - $4.99 per user This feature displays when the selected suitor was last online.
Last activity - $4.99 per user This feature displays when the selected suitor last did anything. It will tell you what actions they did such as when they sent their last last message.
What’s my ranking - $4.99 per user, per round This feature displays what rank your selected suitor has you each day of the round.
Redemption request - $14.99 per episode if they decline, $24.99 if they accept This feature grants the ability to request another date with your suitor who you eliminated in the fourth round. If they decline you do not get a discount but if they accept you are charged full price and the chat reopens.
Simple Background check - $39.99 This feature unlocks your the second to highest tier of valuable suitors. A local, state, and nationwide background check is conducted. This will expire every 3 episodes.
Extensive background check - $99.99 This feature unlocks the highest tier of valuable suitors. An FBI along with a simple background check is conducted. This will expire every 3 episodes.
STD screening check - $79.99 This feature unlocks the highest tier of valuable people in the hookups section of the app. Everyone else’s profile std status will be labeled unconfirmed. This will expire every month or episode, or 3 new partners. We will partner with health providers, centers, and clinics in order to help drive costs down. Each user will be asked to schedule visits within the app for the best rates.
Verified body dimensions - $29.99 This feature is highlighted when a user has measured in person by our partnering health providers, centers, or clinics.
Recast suitors - $39.99 per suitor This feature recasts a selected suitor. This feature is only available during the first 25 hours of a new episode.
Bonus episode - $149.99 per episode This feature unlocks a new episode will a completely new cast. Because this feature will be used while a current episode is happening, the user is charged a premium for the additional expense to find quality matches who are available.
Date night hub sponsors - $999.99 small, $1,799.99 medium, $2,499 large per round Venue owners and or event hosts can pay to accommodate our users during their date nights. We will personally vet each venue. We believe the return on investment for restaurants for example could be high because couples are more likely to remember and frequent the place they first met and will have much stronger and vivid memories.
Service/product providers/sellers - $999.99 per round, $9,999.99 per season Businesses and third parties interested in selling services and or products to our users will pay episode per round or upfront per season.
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2019.08.04 06:59 anti-ZOG-sci-fry Irish Witch Hunt Trials

Irish Witch Hunt Trials
by Jayge 8^J
Ireland, the Emerald Isle, called Éire by its people and Scotia by the Romans, traces its earliest human presence to 10,500 B.C.E. Anglo-Saxon, English, and Norman conquests came in waves, but subsided by 1500. Irish Parliament passed the Statutes of Kilkenny in 1367 to prevent further Norman assimilation and preserve Irish Celtic heritage. An Irish Church loyal to Rome, but modeled after the English, was well-established. The Irish have long prided themselves on a magical worldview of druids and fairies. Children all know about leprechauns and Catholics learn the myth of British Saint Patrick driving out snakes, quite a feat, as in Hawaii and New Zealand, "scientists say that snakes have never existed in Ireland", at least since the Ice Age. Éire is renown for its rolling green hills, Blarney Stone, poets, writers, and lovable drunks.
Europe's Medieval Era ended with the Late Middle Ages and Early Modern Period, of which our course focuses on the Renaissance Era 1350 to 1750 C.E. Before then was arguably Europe's darkest time. The Crusades to the Holy Land ended in defeat to Muslim forces and the rise of the Turkic Ottoman Empire. A Mongol Golden Horde invaded Eastern Europe and a Black Death epidemic of bubonic plague swept across the continent killing a third of Europeans in 5 years, for which Jews were blamed and persecuted. England and France's Hundred Years War began and Scotland won independence until the unification of Great Britain.
England's King Henry VIII revived his King of Ireland title in 1542, dissolved monasteries, established Irish Protestant Ascendancy, and extended English rule of law in Éire through conflicts until about 1700, making its 17th century likely Éire's bloodiest and the only time England fully conquered it. Historic roots of modern Ireland's 'troubles' between Catholics and Protestants date back to British 'gifts' of Irish land to Scottish and English 'planters' along with Protestant immigration to Antrim and Down in Ulster. Famine tragically struck Éire often, once due to a freak climactic shock called the 'Great Frost' in 1740 that resulted in a 38% population loss. Fiercely independent Irish clashed frequently with English and Scottish nationals over oppressive civil and religious issues. Compared to Western Europe's budding prosperity in that era, Éire was mostly rural and poor, yet better off vis-à-vis Eastern Europe sans Russia. An article in The Witchcraft Reader, "Urbanization and the Decline of Witchcraft" by Owen Davies, cited on page 363 Penn historian Lynn Hollen Lees' suggestion that migrant Irish belief in witches and fairies declined in urban environments.
By 1350, witch hunts had claimed their first Irish victim, Petronilla Meath, maid for Alice Kyteler (Ketyll or Kettle) of Kilkenny, an innkeeper. Meath was torched, but her employer fled to England. As late as 1865, Biddy Early was tried for witchcraft but acquitted. Only 4 witch trials took place in Ireland, all apparently against women, far less than elsewhere in Europe, especially in Scotland, where some 3,800 were tried and about 3,000 executed, and the Holy Roman Empire countries, where well over half of all witch trials and executions occurred. Less than 20 years after 7 innocent lives were lost in Salem Massachusetts, the best-known Irish witch trial took place in Carrickfergus in March 1711 over an incident in Islandmagee of County Antrim near Belfast, a case appearing in The Malleus Maleficarum on page XV of its 1928 Introduction.
Newcomer 18-year-old Mary Dunbar exhibited symptoms of possession and claimed to see 8 phantom witches. Likely informed or coached on witchcraft trial theatrics, her lone eyewitness testimony dominated the proceedings, local lore was given undue merit, and 8 poor souls in all were tried and convicted of practicing witchcraft, demonic possession of the woman, then sentenced to public stoning, pelting with rotten produce, from which one woman lost an eye, and a year in prison. Despite being in Northern Ireland, it was before 1920's partition, but no less under English civil law and Irish Church authority.
"The circumstances sworn on the trial were as follow:--
"The afflicted person being, in the month of February, 1711, in the house of James Hattridge, Island Magee, (which had been for some time believed to be haunted by evil spirits) found an apron on the parlour floor, that had been missing some time, tied with five strange knots, which she loosened. On the following day she was suddenly seized with a violent pain in her thigh, and afterwards fell into fits and ravings; and on recovering, said she was tormented by several women, whose dress and personal appearance she minutely described. Shortly after, she was again seized with the like fits; and on recovering, she accused five other women of tormenting her, describing them also. The accused persons being brought from different parts of the country, she appeared to suffer extreme fear and additional torture, as they approached the house.""
"It was also deposed, that strange noises, as of whistling, scratching, &c. were heard in the house, and that a sulphurous smell was observed in the rooms; that stones, turf, and the like, were thrown about the house, and the coverlets, &c. frequently taken off the beds, and made up in the shape of a corpse; and that a bolster once walked out of a room into the kitchen, with a night gown about it! It likewise appeared in evidence, that in some of her fits, three strong men were scarcely able to hold her in the bed; that at times she vomited feathers, cotton yarn, pins, and buttons; and that on one occasion she slid off the bed, and was laid on the floor, as if supported and drawn by an invisible power. The afflicted person was unable to give any evidence on the trial, being during that time dumb...but had no violent fit during its continuance."
"1711. March 31st, Janet Mean, of Braid-island; Janet Latimer, Irish-quarter, Carrickfergus; Janet Millar, Scotch-quarter, Carrickfergus; Margaret Mitchel, Kilroot; Catharine M'Calmond, Janet Liston, alias Seller, Elizabeth Seller, and Janet Carson, the four last from Island Magee, were tried here, in the County of Antrim court, for witchcraft."
"The evidence sworn upon this trial were, Rev. ---- Skevington, Rev. William Ogilvie, William Fenton, John Smith, John Blair, James Blythe, William Hartley, Charles Lennon, John Wilson, Hugh Wilson, Hugh Donaldson, James Hill, James Hattridge, Mrs. Hattridge, Rev. Patrick Adair, Rev. James Cobham, Patrick Ferguson, James Edmonston, and ---- Jamison."
"In defence of the accused, it appeared that they were mostly sober, industrious people, who attended public worship, could repeat the Lord's prayer, and had been known to pray both in public and private; and that some of them had lately received the communion."
"Judge Upton charged the jury, and observed on the regular attendance of the accused on public worship; remarking, that he thought it improbable that real witches could so far retain the form of religion, as to frequent the religious worship of God, both publicly and privately, which had been proved in favour of the accused. He concluded by giving his opinion, `that the jury could not bring them in guilty, upon the sole testimony of the afflicted person's visionary images.' He was followed by Justice Macartney, who differed from him in opinion, `and thought the jury might, from the evidence, bring them in guilty;' which they accordingly did."
"This trial lasted from six o'clock in the morning till two in the afternoon; and the prisoners were sentenced to be imprisoned twelve months, and to stand four times in the pillory in Carrickfergus."
Research by University of Ulster's Andrew Sneddon indicated that Mary Dunbar made up her claims. He said, "Like a lot of demoniacs in England and Scotland, I think Mary Dunbar learned and followed a script." She caused 8 innocent women to endure terrifying accusations and trial for witchcraft, spend an irretrievable year of each of their lives in prison, and suffer possibly irreparable damage to their reputations. For that, Mary Dunbar merited equal treatment, but she was not the main culprit here. Any 'king or kirk' powers that be, public officials or clergymen who condoned or led this farce deserved public defrocking and flogging as an example to others of their ilk, showing them miscarriage of justice and value of mercy. According to Wikipedia, Irishwoman Laurien Magee (1689-1710) was "Burnt at the stake as part of the Islandmagee witch trial." From the same list came Irishwoman Petronilla de Meath (ca. 1300-1324) "Burned to death." Official records of the trial were lost in a fire at the Public Records Office during the Irish Civil War of 1922-23.
"One of the main witch-hunters involved in the infamous Islandmagee Witch Trial is an ancestor of the American author and humourist, Mark Twain, according to University of Ulster historian, Dr Andrew Sneddon. Dr Sneddon says he unearthed evidence of the family connection between Edward Clements of Clements Hill, Straid, the man who led the Islandmagee witch-hunt in his role as Mayor of Carrickfergus and the writer Samuel Langhorne Clemens who used the pseudonym Mark Twain, while carrying out research for his latest book."
Mark Twain was clearly bewitched for life: "No alien land in all the world has any deep, strong charm for me but that one; no other land could so longingly and beseechingly haunt me, sleeping and waking, through half a lifetime, as that one has done. Other things leave me, but it abides; other things change, but it remains the same. For me its balmy airs are always blowing, its summer seas flashing in the sun; the pulsing of its surf-beat in my ear; I can see its garlanded crags, its leaping cascades, its plumy palms drowsing by the shore; its remote summits floating like islands above the cloud rack; I can feel the spirit of its wooded solitudes; I can hear the splash of its brooks; in my nostrils still lives the breath of flowers that perished twenty years ago...The loveliest fleet of islands that lies anchored in any ocean." - Samuel Longhorn Clemens (Mark Twain).
When English puritans in Youghal, County Cork charged destitute old Florence Newton of bewitching young Mary Longdon, Newton implicated "Goody Halfpenny and Goody Dod", but recanted when faced with a 'water test'. Mayor Myre committed her to gaol 24th March 1661 and held a trial that 11th September for witchcraft. Longdon then testified against her, claiming she "vomited up needles, pins, horse-nails, stubbs, wool and straw". Valentine Greatrakes, a 'witchcraft expert', examined Newton, but she failed to recite the Lord's Prayer hurting her case, saying her 'victim' was 'down' just as Longdon collapsed in violent fits of shrieking, biting her own arms, and foaming at the mouth, as well as the sudden death of her jailer, David Jones. No official record remains of the verdict, but Florence Newton was likely found guilty and hanged.
A century later another incident occurred, also in Carrickfergus, inspiring this ballad:
"In Carrick town a wife did dwell Who does pretend to conjure witches.
Auld Barbara Goats, or Lucky Bell, Ye'll no lang to come through her clutches,
A waeful trick this wife did play On simple Sawney, our poor tailor.
She's mittimiss'd the other day To lie in limbo with the jailor.
This simple Sawney had a cow, Was aye as sleekit as an otter;
It happened for a month or two Aye when they churn'd they got nae butter,
Rown-tree tied in the cow's tail, And vervain glean'd about the ditches;
These freets and charms did not prevail, They could not banish the auld witches.
The neighbour wives a' gathered in In number near about a dozen;
Elspie Dough, and Mary Linn, An' Kate M'Cart, the tailor's cousin.
Aye they churn'd and aye they swat, Their aprons loos'd, and coost their mutches
But yet nae butter they could get, They blessed the cow but curst the witches.
Had Sawney summoned all his wits And sent awa for Huie Mertin,
He could have gall'd the witches' guts, An' cur't the kye to Nannie Barton.
But he may shew the farmer's wab, An' lang wade through Carnmoney gutters;
Alas! it was a sore mis-jab When he employ'd auld Mary Butters.
The sorcerest open'd the scene With magic words of her invention,
To make the foolish people keen Who did not know her base intention,
She drew a circle round the churn, And washed the staff in south-run water,
And swore the witches she would burn, But she would have the tailor's butter.
When sable Night her curtain spread Then she got on a flaming fire;
The tailor stood at the cow's head With his turn'd waistcoats in the byre.
The chimney covered with a scraw An' every crevice where it smoak'd,
But long before the cock did craw The people in the house were choak'd.
The muckle pot hung on all night, As Mary Butters had been brewing
In hopes to fetch some witch or wight, Whas entrails by her art were stewing.
In this her magic a' did fail; Nae witch nor wizard was detected.
Now Mary Butters lies in jail For the base part that she has acted.
The tailor lost his son and wife, For Mary Butters did them smother;
But as he hates a single life In four weeks' time he got another.
He is a crouse auld canty chiel, An' cares nae what the witches mutter
He'll never mair employ the Deil, Nor his auld agent Mary Butters.
At day the tailor left his post Though he had seen no apparition,
Nae wizard grim, nae witch, nor ghost, Though still he had a stray suspicion
That some auld wizard wrinkled wife Had cast her cantrips o'er poor brawny
Cause she and he did live in strife, An' whar's the man can blame poor Sawney.
Wae sucks for our young lasses now, For who can read their mystic matters,
Or tell if their sweethearts be true, The folks a' run to Mary Butters.
To tell what thief a horse did steal, In this she was a mere pretender,
An' has nae art to raise the Deil Like that auld wife, the Witch of Endor.
If Mary Butters be a witch Why but the people all should know it,
An' if she can the muses touch I'm sure she'll soon descry the poet.
Her ain familiar aff she'll sen' Or paughlet wi' a tu' commission
To pour her vengeance on the man That tantalizes her condition."
Officials with a duty to uphold justice ought to know better than believe in Satanic witchcraft and clergy entrusted with a community's spiritual well-being had best avoid the temptation to succumb to fear and respond with terror, but sadly they do not. Catholic papal decree and Protestant biblical authority gave demonologists legitimacy. One is fraught with scandal and corruption throughout most of its existence, while the other relies on word weasels to wrangle justification from a book that is often cited in support of notions like 900-year-old humans, worldwide flooding, a zoo afloat, fantasy beasts, gods mating with people producing giants, an angry and jealous God smiting folks, fire and brimstone destroying cities, God appearing as a cloud pillar, a fire pillar, or a burning bush, manna from heaven, UFO wheels-within-wheels, a hand writing on a wall, holy ghosts, 3-personed-beings, virgin birth, birthplace marked by a star, tetragrammaton, transubstantiation, consubstantiation, extreme unction, changing water into wine, raising the dead to life, and other dubious miracles. Is that not enough biblical nonsense opprobrium for one sentence?
What about the magical world view of august theologians imagining nonexistent spiritual entities like god(s), angels, demons, and women cavorting with demons? The Malleus Maleficarum is a testament to religious fantasy turned insanity. There never were Satanic witches. The 1950s' H.U.A.C. hearings proved witch frenzy can happen anytime. For real witchcraft, behold godlike Wall Street bank wizards and their 'Federal Reserve' create money 'ex nihilo'. See how they duped us all into believing inept super-Muslims destroyed 7 World Trade Center buildings with no real evidence or investigation so Larry Silverstein and Frank Lowy could net insurance payout $billions. Vast funding for new weapons flooded to the Pentagon, despite losing $2 trillion as DoD head Rumsfeld announced on 9/10/2001, yet no money to ensure peace. The C.I.A., which thrives on opium and coca trade, managed poppy crops in Afghanistan, oil companies laid Asian pipelines, and Bonesman George Bush wreaked havoc in Iraq with no WMD found, while $billions went to Halliburton in 'no-bid contracts'. Reagan envoy Rumsfeld helped Iraq get WMD. "They included viruses such as anthrax and bubonic plague, according to the Washington Post." The once oxymoronic 'military intelligence' with its technological edge has honed torture to a fine art and propaganda to a science. Witness the Muslim 'martyrs' it has spawned and the 'Zombie Apocalypse' Hollywood portends.
An evanescent veneer of respectability barely shrouds globalist society's malevolent heart. Cable TV news reminds us daily for 16 years now of that awful day so perhaps 9/11/2001 marked the start of a new Dark Age. It is said, "For the love of money is the root of all evil..." Evil is far more profitable than good. Is that why Christmas is Jews' favorite holiday? God did it for the prophets and nuns do it out of habit.
Bibliography:
Irish Witchcraft and Demonology by St. John D. Seymour, 1973. V'ger: BF1581 .S4 1973
Servants of Satan : The Age of the Witch Hunts by Joseph Klaits, 1985. HSPLS: 133.4 K
The Templars, the Witch, and the Wild Irish by Maeve Brigid Callan, 2017.
Witch Hunts: A Graphic History of the Burning Times by Rocky Wood, Lisa Morton, Greg Chapman, 2012.
The Witch Hunts : A History of the Witch Persecutions in Europe and North America by Robert W. Thurston, 2001.
Witch Hunts in Europe and America : an Encyclopedia by William E. Burns, 2003. V'ger: BF1584.E9 B87 2003
Witch Hunts in the Western World : Persecution and Punishment from the Inquisition Through the Salem Trials by Brian A. Pavlac, 2009.
The Witch-hunt in Early Modern Europe by Brian Levack, 2006. V'ger: BF1571 .L48 2006
The Witch Mania by Charles MacKay, 2010.
Witchcraft and Magic in Ireland, 1586-1946 by Dr. Andrew Sneddon, 2015.
Witchcraze : A New History of the European Witch Hunts by Anne Barstow, 1994. HSPLS: 133.43 B V'ger: BF1584.E9 B27 1994
Witches and Witch-hunts : a History of Persecution by Milton Meltzer, 1999. HSPLS: 133.43 Me
Witchfinders by Melvin Gaskill, 2005. V'ger: BF1581 .G38 2005
These websites were also helpful and all double-quoted material came from them.:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ireland
http://www.libraryireland.com/articles/CarrickfergusDPJ1-47/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islandmagee_witch_trial
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_people_executed_for_witchcraft
http://www.irishexaminer.com/lifestyle/features/florence-newton--the-woman-at-the-centre-of-one-of-irelands-greatest-witch-trials-427629.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florence_Newton
http://www.aohflorida.org/irish-witchcraft/
http://personal.utulsa.edu/~marc-carlson/witchtrial/ireland.html
https://sites.google.com/site/supernaturaleire/irish-witch-trials
http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-northern-ireland-31148230
http://www.independent.ie/lifestyle/the-witches-of-antrim-26737807.html
http://inpurespirit.com/3240/islandmagee-witches-300th-anniversary-of-the-last-witch-trial-in-ireland/
https://www.irishcentral.com/roots/irish-witch-trials-of-eight-women-revealed-300-years-later-123186248-237788431
https://www.rte.ie/news/special-reports/2011/0330/299292-witches/
https://www.midandeastantrim.gov.uk/tourism/things-to-do/myths-legends
https://books.google.com/books?id=KCjlptFEMZsC&pg=PA109&lpg=PA109&dq=Carrickfergus+witch+hunt&source=bl&ots=nAw0DnFi1n&sig=xO3rUFLpG77VKCVsWxKpXLIay8o&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiRu9aKm9XWAhVO-GMKHUqfDLw4ChDoAQg2MAY#v=onepage&q=Carrickfergus%20witch%20hunt&f=false
https://corkskeptics.org/tag/witch-hunt/
http://www.technogypsie.com/rhymou?tag=carrickfergus
http://www.historyextra.com/article/feature/9-britain-best-castles-tintagel-edinburgh-highclere-thornbury-england-wales-northern-ireland-scotland?page=3
http://listverse.com/2017/07/15/top-10-strange-and-terrifying-witch-trials-throughout-history/
https://www.irishcentral.com/roots/history/on-trial-for-witchcraft-irish-women-of-sorcery-or-power
https://darkemeraldtales.wordpress.com/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_modern_period
http://www.sacred-texts.com/pag/iwd/iwd10.htm
https://www.irishcentral.com/roots/mark-twains-ancestor-was-witchfinder-general-during-belfast-witchcraft-trial-230973591-237786421
https://www.ulster.ac.uk/news/2013/octobemark-twain-and-the-irish-connection
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mark_Twain
http://www.hawaiishrine.com/mtwain.htm
https://airandspace.si.edu/exhibitions/hawaii-by-aionline/paradise/strangers-in-paradise.cfm
https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=1+Timothy+6%3A10&version=KJV
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2019.07.31 22:16 AutoNewspaperAdmin [IE] - Meath man jailed for raping woman he met on dating app loses appeal Irish Times

[IE] - Meath man jailed for raping woman he met on dating app loses appeal Irish Times submitted by AutoNewspaperAdmin to AutoNewspaper [link] [comments]


2019.07.31 22:02 AutoNewsAdmin [IE] - Meath man jailed for raping woman he met on dating app loses appeal

[IE] - Meath man jailed for raping woman he met on dating app loses appeal submitted by AutoNewsAdmin to IRISHTIMESauto [link] [comments]


2019.07.27 16:38 sean7755 We are at a brick wall for my paternal side of the family. We can’t find my ancestor or anyone that seems to be related

My grandfather has researched for years, my father did some, and now I’m trying. Our surname is Gillen, but we’re not 100% sure if it was changed from something else when they immigrated to the United States.
His name was Daniel Gillen, and he was born in Ireland, more than likely in Dublin, Meath, or Longford. His wife was born in Longford; her name was Catherine Conway and she was born in 1794 in the town of Killashee. They had three kids that were supposedly all born in Dublin. Any information at all would be greatly appreciated. I’d like to just know anything, like a date, a location, a sibling or parent’s name, etc.
Please let me know if any more information is needed
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2019.06.24 18:01 autotldr Tinder sex attacker given 12-year jail term

This is the best tl;dr I could make, original reduced by 84%. (I'm a bot)
A 37-year-old serial sex offender has been jailed for a total of 12 years for the rape of one woman and the sexual assault of another after meeting both women through the Tinder dating app.
Patrick Nevin is already serving a five-and-a-half year sentence for the sexual assault of a third woman.
The judge said using the Tinder dating app was not an invitation to rape or sexual assault.
She said it had to be viewed in context having been carried out four days before another sexual assault and 11 days before another sexual assault.
Nevin was convicted of sexual assault and sentenced to five-and-a-half years after an eight-day trial in 2017, having denied the charge.
At the Central Criminal Court, he admitted raping a woman at Bellewstown, Co Meath on 12 July 2014 and to the sexual assault of a second woman at an unknown place in Co Meath on 16 July 2014.
Summary Source FAQ Feedback Top keywords: assault#1 sexual#2 woman#3 Court#4 rape#5
Post found in /worldnews.
NOTICE: This thread is for discussing the submission topic. Please do not discuss the concept of the autotldr bot here.
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2019.06.09 07:40 stroke_bot ramets avocation

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2019.05.03 04:11 swbradbury Newgrange, County Meath, Ireland. A pre-historic site that dates back to 3200 BC... Older than the Pyramids and Stonehenge.

Newgrange, County Meath, Ireland. A pre-historic site that dates back to 3200 BC... Older than the Pyramids and Stonehenge. submitted by swbradbury to travel [link] [comments]


2019.02.25 10:59 PlasticCoffee Bills scheduled for discussion in Dáil Éireann from the 25th of February 2019 till the 3rd of March 2019

Bills scheduled for discussion in Dáil Éireann from the 25th of February 2019 till the 3rd of March 2019.
This information was found on oireachtas.ie the official government website for the Government. Oireachtas.ie does say that the schedule is subject to change at short notice.
A lot of the descriptions are in legalese and they reference legal statutes and other laws, but these descriptions are from oireachtas.ie. If you follow the link you can also find a link to the bills in question themselves.
Let me know if you think this could be done better.
Link to last week's post
Ireland
Bills scheduled for discussion
Subject to change at short notice
Tue, 26 Feb 2019
Withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union (Consequential Provisions) Bill 2019 in Dáil Éireann
Sponsored by: Minister for Foreign Affairs and Trade, Simon Coveney
Source: Government
Originating House: Dáil Éireann
Description
Bill entitled an Act to make provision for certain matters consequent on the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from membership of the European Union, and—
A. in the event of that withdrawal occurring without an agreement between the United Kingdom and the European Union under Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union setting out the arrangements for such withdrawal, to make exceptional provision, in the public interest and having regard to the Common Travel Area between the State and the United Kingdom, to reduce the possibility of a serious disturbance in the economy of the State and in the sound functioning of a number of markets, sectors and fields in the State as a result of such withdrawal and to mitigate, where practicable, the effects of such a disturbance should it occur in those circumstances, and
B. in the event of that withdrawal occurring in circumstances where there is an agreement (setting out the arrangements for such withdrawal) between the United Kingdom and the European Union under Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union, to adapt references in enactments to a Member State of the European Union so that those references include or continue to include, in so far as is necessary to give effect to the terms of such agreement, references to the United Kingdom, and, for those purposes, to amend certain enactments; And to amend the Immigration Act 1999, the Immigration Act 2003 and the Immigration Act 2004 to make further provision in relation to the entry into, and removal from, the State of persons; And to provide for related matters.
So called Brexit omnibus bill , that has 15 parts, you can read about them here,from RTÉ
The Government omnibus Bill will ‘sit on a shelf’ and not be needed by March 29th
The purpose of the to shelter the Irish economy, particularly agriculture, food processing and transport from the damage a no deal Brexit would do.
The omnibus bill gives new lending powers for Enterprise Ireland to help businesses affected by a no-deal Brexit and deferred accounting for traders importing from the UK to avoid making substantial VAT payments at the moment they import the goods into the State.
Another part protects the pilots of ships, who are steering boats into the State’s harbours and ports should the UK leave without a deal.
Large parts of the fresh legislative text would guarantee the continuation of the Common Travel Area (CTA), the long-standing arrangements that permit Irish people to enter and work in the UK – and Britons in Ireland.
Another part is used to set up the use of the Council of Europe Convention on Extradition, the 1957 multilateral extradition treaty drawn up by member states of the Council of Europe, as Ireland and Britain can no longer rely on the European Arrest Warrant, used by both countries since 2003 to transport criminals across the Irish Sea.
Wed, 27 Feb 2019
Withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union (Consequential Provisions) Bill 2019 in Dáil Éireann
As above.
Thu, 28 Feb 2019
Criminal Law (Extraterritorial Jurisdiction) Bill 2018 in Dáil Éireann
Sponsored by: Minister for Justice and Equality, Charles Flanagan
Source: Government
Originating House: Seanad Éireann
Description :
Bill entitled an Act to extend the criminal law of the State to certain conduct engaged in outside the State and in that regard to give effect to certain provisions of the Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence done at Istanbul on 11 May 2011; for that purpose to amend the Criminal Justice (Mutual Assistance) Act 2008; and to provide for related matters.
This is a pretty big bill but an overview is that the bill will allow for individuals who commit particular offences (including the Non-Fatal Offences Against the Person Act 1997 and the Criminal Law (Rape) (Amendment) Act 1990, as well as murder and manslaughter) abroad will be liable to be prosecuted under Irish law.
The bill is the final piece of legislation required to allow Ireland to ratify the Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combatting Violence against Women and Domestic Violence, known as the Istanbul Convention.
This only applies if the person broke the laws on board a convention state's ship, a aircraft registered in a convention State, or in a convention state.
The convention is a European Council convention and every state doesn't have to sign up so it's for All European states , which they council of Europe and the E.U. define as states that hold land in Europe , which means west of the Ural River (Kazakhstan counts),includes the Caucasus Mountains(Georgia+ Azerbaijan count)or they are politically European( so Greenland and Armenia count too) minus , Kosovo (because it not recognized by 30 council of Europe states),Belarus and Kazakhstan(aren't in the council cause of human rights records), Vatican(aren't in it cause they are a theocracy) ,Russia and Azerbaijan didn't sign it.
here is a link to the Wikipedia about the convention
see map here for the counties who are signatories to the convention
see wikipedia article here for the member states of the Council of Europe, and there reasoning why certain countries are included
Withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union (Consequential Provisions) Bill 2019 in Dáil Éireann
As above.
European Parliament Elections (Amendment) Bill 2019 in Dáil Éireann
Sponsored by: Minister for Housing, Planning and Local Government, Eoghan Murphy
Source: Government
Originating House: Dáil Éireann
Description :
Bill entitled an Act to give effect to European Council Decision (EU) 2018/937 of 28 June 2018 establishing the composition of the European Parliament and Council Decision (EU, Euratom) 2018/994 of 13 July 2018 amending the Act concerning the election of the members of the European Parliament by direct universal suffrage, annexed to Council Decision 76/787/ECSC, EEC, Euratom of 20 September 1976 and, for that purpose, to revise the European Parliament constituencies; to provide for the number of members to be elected for such constituencies; to amend the European Parliament Elections Act 1997; to amend the Electoral Act 1992; and to provide for related matters.
The Act extends the minimum period of time by which the Minister for Housing, Planning and Local Government must make a ‘polling day order’ announcing the date for the 2 holding of a poll for an election to the European Parliament, it now has to be announced not less than 60 days before polling day (currently it is not less than 50 days).
The Act will allow candidates standing for election to the European Parliament the option to include on their ballot papers the name of any European political party to which their national political party may be affiliated. It will also allow national political parties the option of including on the Register of Political Parties the name of any European political party to which they may be affiliated.
Below is the updated constituency areas with the Number of Members that are to be elected in each constituency.
Constituency : Dublin
Area : The counties of: Dún Laoghaire-Rathdown, Fingal and South Dublin; and the city of Dublin.
Number of Members : 4
Constituency : Midlands-North-West
Area : The counties of: Cavan, Donegal, Galway, Kildare, Leitrim, Longford, Louth, Mayo, Meath, Monaghan, Roscommon, Sligo and Westmeath; and the city of Galway
Number of Members : 4
Constituency : South
Area : The counties of: Carlow, Clare, Cork, Kerry, Kilkenny, Laois, Offaly, Tipperary, Wexford and Wicklow; the cities and counties of Limerick and Waterford; and the city of Cork.
Number of Members : 5
Thanks For reading and the support for continuing with these kind of posts
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