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Osmosis: Netflix Original Series

2019.01.17 05:57 Elainasha Osmosis: Netflix Original Series

A subreddit for the Netflix sci-fi series Osmosis. Anybody is welcome to comment about anything related to the series.

2020.09.29 04:18 bigolpancake Regarding Colin's Recent Tweet Welcoming Trump Supporters so Long as they Aren't "Extremists"...

Colin recently declared in a tweet that “CLS is for everyone, so long as you're not an extremist or asshole.” I’m genuinely curious—what more does Trump have to do before he and his supporters may be accurately characterized as extremist, or in his words “assholes”?
Please don’t attempt to start a fallacious semantic dispute by claiming Trump’s views aren’t “extremist” because they’ve garnered mainstream support in the U.S. If you extend that reasoning to its logical conclusion, one could likewise argue that Nazism in 1940s Germany wasn’t extremist. Trump and by extension his supporters are indeed extremists in the broader context of international norms and politics as well as in the historical context of the U.S. Lest we forget, it is well documented that:
And these are just instances of extremism I can recall off the top of my head. I could of course go further (e.g. recent evidence of tax avoidance, withdraw from WHO, needlessly provoking Iran and downplaying its airstrike on a U.S. military base, spreading misinformation about COVID-19 treatment, denying Russian election collusion despite evidence, numerous instances of inflaming racial tensions, etc., etc.), but I won’t for the sake of brevity and because I believe I’ve made my point.
I have a lot of respect for Colin, and I sinceraly enjoy hearing his take on poltical issues. But in regards to Trump and Trump supporters, I think it's time we all quit pandering and call a spade a spade.
submitted by bigolpancake to ColinsLastStand [link] [comments]

2020.09.28 12:16 ModeratorsOfArmenia Azerbaijan launches wide scale attack against Artsakh [Day 2]

Please abide by the text of the sidebar and refrain from any incendiary expressions especially calls for violence or hate speech. Please help the mod team and report any offending content you find. Thank you.
Megathread of day 1: /armenia/comments/j0kxja/megathread_attack_on_artsakh_september_2020/
Disclaimer: Due to the nature of the conflict only official sources provide information and fog of war exists. Further analysis is carried out by third parties. Other third parties gather this information and present them on their own terms, including media and ordinary people. It goes without saying that information emanating from official sources should be taken for what they are and not be treated as being independent news.
David's concise and detailed wrap up of the developing war:
Method 1 (reported to work better):
Post by the #2 official at the Diaspora High Commissioners Office:
Basically, the important takeaway is that you can just log into Paypal directly and send money to [email protected] and you won't have to deal with the Armeniafund/Himnadram websites at all.
Method 2:
Minister of Territorial Administration and Development of Armenia Suren Papikyan's message where he mentions how to donate:
You can do paypal or you can use the website on hamahaykakan.
Links to official sources:
Links to analysts and experts:
  • <- Thomas de Waal is a senior fellow with Carnegie Europe, specializing in Eastern Europe and the Caucasus region, author of the book Black Garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan Through Peace and War
  • <- Laurence Broers is the Caucasus programme director at London-based peacebuilding organization Conciliation Resources. He has more than 20 years’ experience as a researcher of conflicts in the South Caucasus and practitioner of peacebuilding initiatives in the region.
  • <- Washington-based independent Armenian conflict analyst Emil Sanamyan
If you would like to see other links or other information here please leave a comment or write to the mod team (do not send private messages to this account). Thanks.
Հայեր ջան, պետք չի հարվածների, պայթյունների տեղերը նկարել ու գցել սոցցանցեր, ու պետք չի նաև տարածել։
Դրանով նավոդկա եք տալիս ադրբեջանցիներին, թե ոնց են խփել, ուր են խփել, կպել են, չեն կպել, և այլն։ Մի խոսքով. ՄԻ ՕԳՆԵՔ ԱԴՐԲԵՋԱՆՑԻՆԵՐԻՆ։
Հիմա դրանց հետախուզությունը սոցցանցերում է լցված։
Կարեն Վրթանեսյան, կայքի համակարգող
It is vital that we don’t re-circulate videos or images that may show our positions on the front line. The Armenian military has already asked that people don’t post any information regarding this invasion.
Trust me I know how badly we want to know what’s going on, but for the sake of our country we can’t. No matter how well intentioned a video of a tank moving through a village for morale may very well lead to the death our Armenian troops. Save lives don’t post.
Statements from international organisations backing negotiations within the OSCE Minsk Group framework:
What is all this about?
(in backwards chronological order)–Azerbaijani_clashes
Is there a neutral narrative of the conflict?
Recently the UK based Conciliation Resources released a documentary jointly produced by Armenian and Azerbaijani journalists. This is agreed to be the most neutral account of the conflict ever made, you can watch it online here:
Black Garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan through Peace and War by Thomas de Waal is agreed to be the best book on the conflict:
Is there a peace plan?
Azerbaijan and the Armenian side have agreed in principle to the settlement process mediated by the OSCE Minsk Group co-chaired by the US, Russia and France with a mandate from the UN, which since 2009 has consisted of the following proposal:
The ministers of the US, France, and Russia presented a preliminary version of the Basic Principles for a settlement to Armenia and Azerbaijan in November 2007 in Madrid.
The Basic Principles reflect a reasonable compromise based on the Helsinki Final Act principles of Non-Use of Force, Territorial Integrity, and the Equal Rights and Self-Determination of Peoples.
The Basic Principles call for inter alia:
  • return of the territories surrounding Nagorno-Karabakh to Azerbaijani control;
  • an interim status for Nagorno-Karabakh providing guarantees for security and self-governance;
  • a corridor linking Armenia to Nagorno-Karabakh;
  • future determination of the final legal status of Nagorno-Karabakh through a legally binding expression of will;
  • the right of all internally displaced persons and refugees to return to their former places of residence; and
  • international security guarantees that would include a peacekeeping operation.
The endorsement of these Basic Principles by Armenia and Azerbaijan will allow the drafting of a comprehensive settlement to ensure a future of peace, stability, and prosperity for Armenia and Azerbaijan and the broader region.
However there has been no meaningful progress in the negotiations, meanwhile the mediating group focusing on containing the conflict proposed to harden the ceasefire regime following the 2016 April "four day war" as well as following the Armenian revolution of 2018 made a proposal to the sides to prepare the populations for peace.
Thomas de Waal:
Russia, the US and the EU have enough tools to contain both sides, but they have neither the time, nor the energy, nor the desire to try to force Armenia and Azerbaijan to conclude peace, let alone send peacekeepers who will have to monitor the implementation of the agreement.
Sergey Markedonov (Carnegie Moscow Center):
Russia is well aware that the search for compromises is the business of the Armenian and Azerbaijani sides. They are not ready for this, but no one will do this work for them.
What disinformation is prevalent about this conflict?
One of the most entrenched disinformations is that pertaining to the nature of the UN Security Council resolutions on the conflict.
The UN Security Council resolutions concern with and recognise the invasions and occupations of the surrounding territories of Nagorno-Karabakh carried out by local Armenians of Nagorno Karabakh.
The UN Security Council resolutions
  1. do NOT recognise Republic of Armenia having invaded or occupied any territories,
  2. do NOT recognise Nagorno-Karabakh as occupied or invaded territory,
  3. do NOT demand Republic of Armenia to withdraw forces from any territories,
  4. do NOT demand any forces to be withdrawn from Nagorno-Karabakh.
submitted by ModeratorsOfArmenia to armenia [link] [comments]

2020.09.24 22:04 Gingerroot966 Yet Another Opinion Piece Pushed Under The Notion Of Objective Journalism In The NY Times. Durham’s Investigation Into the Origins Of The “Russia Investigation” Might Actually Have Some Teeth....The Clintons Are Under Scrutiny

The NY Times had another opinion piece trotted out as objective journalism today.
The full article is copy and pasted at the end of this post.
As someone who closely followed the “Russia hysteria” since late 2016 I wasn’t expecting much from John Durham’s investigation into the origins of the “Russia investigation.” Durham was the one who investigated the CIA and its torture tapes and criminal activities for years only to capitulate and to let the CIA off the hook, even after the CIA and then head of the CIA John Brennan was caught spying on the US Intelligence Committee in an attempt to control the narrative. John Brennan lied before Congress, on video, and has never been prosecuted. And who is the current head of the CIA? Gina Haspel, the very person who personally illegally destroyed all of the CIA’s torture tapes.
In this NY Times article you can see in plain sight one of the tactics the MSM employs, framing the narrative and putting the potential reader into a desired perspective based on opinions and anything but just the facts, mam.
From the article: “From the beginning, John H. Durham’s inquiry into the Russia investigation has been politically charged.
Has it or is that how you are attempting to frame it now since it looks like Durham might actually do something, unlike with his investigation into CIA torture?
President Trump promoted it as certain to uncover a “deep state” plot against him, Attorney General William P. Barr rebuked the investigators under scrutiny, and he and Mr. Durham publicly second-guessed an independent inspector general and traveled the globe to chase down conspiracy theories.
Barr and Durham released statements public about the Inspector General’s Report—which revealed clear bias and illegality within the “Russia investigation” and in how FISA warrants were obtained and renewed—and stated that they had more power than the Inspector General had in order to obtain documents and subpoena and tap into intelligence. The Inspector General didn’t and doesn’t have the power that John Durham has to interview overseas intel assets and to procure documents from intelligence agencies, at home and abroad. They made it clear that they had found substantially more than the Inspector General had because of that power. That’s all.
And how can one frame Durham and Barr going overseas to look into Joseph Misfud as chasing “conspiracy theories” when the findings and evidence and conclusion of the investigation has yet to be settled? The FBI used Misfud to in an attempt to entrap George Papadopoulos—by supposedly telling him that potential dirt and emails on Hillary Clinton were available—along with another asset of theirs, Alexander Downer, who then inquired if Papadopoulos had heard about any potential damaging info about the Clintons that Papadopoulos had heard about. The FBI used Misfud to feed Papadopoulos the bare bones info and then used Downer to get said info out of Papadopoulos, in order to give the appearance that Papadopoulos had real info and was working with the Russians. Then the FBI attempted to further seal the deal by throwing money at him and then waiting for him to land at an airport in the US when Papadopoulos reentered the country, expecting him to have the money on him, thus getting him on tax evasion and money laundering. Instead he had left the money overseas with his lawyer.
The FBI had nothing on Papadopoulos and yet what did they finally get him on? Misremembering the exact day of the week that he had met with Misfud. That’s it.
The exact same level of entrapment was attempted with the now infamous “Trump Tower Meeting” in summer of 2016 with Don Jr and others with a Russian lawyer, who come to find out was only allowed into the US because Obama’s State Department gave her a pass in order to do so. The same lawyer from Russia who had worked for years previously with Fusion GPS, the same firm tasked and paid for through lawyers by the DNC and Clinton Campaign to gather dirt on the Trump Campaign. The same lawyer who met with the head of Fusion GPS, Glenn Simpson, the day BEFORE and the day AFTER the infamous “Trump Tower Meeting.” The same Fusion GPS which was paying a former UK spy, Christopher Steele, to manufacture the “Trump Dossier.”
But now we know that in January 2017 the FBI knew that Steele’s main source for the info in the Dossier discredited it and that Misfud in a February 2017 interview with the FBI stated that he never discussed anything about emails or Hillary Clinton with Papadopoulos. We now know that the FBI in 2017 had doctored emails sent to them by the CIA which stated that Carter Page had worked with the CIA as an intel asset for years, all in order to keep the FISA warrant on Page alive. The person in the FBI who doctored the emails in order for the FISA warrant to be renewed just pleaded guilty.
And ZERO of the above are conspiracy theories but verifiable fact.
In the Russia investigation, F.B.I. officials did take aggressive steps such as obtaining a secret wiretap to eavesdrop on a former Trump adviser. But they also moved quietly, deploying informants and an undercover agent in part to keep the existence of the investigation from becoming public and affecting the 2016 election.
From 2017 to 2019 those in the MSM vehemently denied any and all assertions that spies and assets were used against the Trump Campaign. Now they quietly admit it and attempt to brush it aside as routine.
Mr. Barr has repeatedly attacked the Russia inquiry as Mr. Durham has investigated it, calling it “one of the greatest travesties in American history” and ignoring a policy that generally prohibits the department from making public statements about current investigations.
I’m not a fan of Barr but what he said rings true. I was a Bernie Sanders supporter in 2016 and this year. I decried police and the feds beating back protestors and journalists from the front of the White House so Trump could walk across the street for a photo op in front of a church. I didn’t vote for Trump and honestly don’t like him. But the truth is the truth regardless of political leanings.
The then current White House and political party in power using the state surveillance apparatus to spy and entrap the other political party’s campaign is a travesty. Obama wanted to stand there during the inauguration with a big smile on his face knowing that he was walking out the door while sticking a foot out to trip up the next person walking in.
But the book caught the attention of F.B.I. agents, who viewed some of its contents as additional justification to obtain a subpoena for foundation records.
Top officials in Justice Department criminal division denied a request in 2016 from senior F.B.I. managers in Washington to secure a subpoena, determining that the bureau lacked a sufficient basis for it and that the book had a political agenda, former officials said. Some prosecutors at the time felt the book had been discredited.
The decision frustrated some agents who believed they had enough evidence beyond the book, including a discussion that touched on the foundation and was captured on a wiretap in an unrelated investigation. Other F.B.I. officials at the time believed the conversation’s relevance to the foundation case was tenuous at best.
Now that the Clintons are back in the crosshairs the propaganda and opinion pieces pushed as objective journalism are ratcheting up. It started with Obama’s former Attorney General Eric Holder’s op-ed in the Washington Post at the end of last year, sending veiled threats Durham’s way.
Will Durham bend the knee like he did with his investigation into CIA torture? Is Barr just the government’s “cleanup man” like Harvey Keitel’s character in Pulp Fiction and he’s just leading Trump on?
The full NY Times article to save people from the click and visiting the website:
In Politically Charged Inquiry, Durham Sought Details About Scrutiny of Clintons
John Durham’s team has sought information about the F.B.I.’s handling of the Clinton Foundation investigation, raising questions about the scope of the prosecutor’s review.
WASHINGTON — From the beginning, John H. Durham’s inquiry into the Russia investigation has been politically charged. President Trump promoted it as certain to uncover a “deep state” plot against him, Attorney General William P. Barr rebuked the investigators under scrutiny, and he and Mr. Durham publicly second-guessed an independent inspector general and traveled the globe to chase down conspiracy theories.
It turns out that Mr. Durham also focused attention on certain political enemies of Mr. Trump: the Clintons.
Mr. Durham, the U.S. attorney in Connecticut assigned by Mr. Barr to review the Russia inquiry, has sought documents and interviews about how federal law enforcement officials handled an investigation around the same time into allegations of political corruption at the Clinton Foundation, according to people familiar with the matter.
Mr. Durham’s team members have suggested to others that they are comparing the two investigations as well as examining whether investigators in the Russia inquiry flouted laws or policies. It was not clear whether Mr. Durham’s investigators were similarly looking for violations in the Clinton Foundation investigation, nor whether the comparison would be included or play a major role in the outcome of Mr. Durham’s inquiry. The approach is highly unusual, according to people briefed on the investigation. Though the suspected crimes themselves are not comparable — one involves a possible conspiracy between a presidential campaign and a foreign adversary to interfere in an election, and the other involves potential bribery and corruption — and largely included different teams of investigators and prosecutors, Mr. Durham’s efforts suggest the scope of his review is broader than previously known.
Mr. Durham’s focus on the Clinton Foundation inquiry comes as concerns deepen among Democrats and some former Justice Department officials that his investigation is being weaponized politically to help Mr. Trump. Congressional Democrats last week called on the department’s inspector general to investigate whether Mr. Durham’s review was free from political influence after his top aide abruptly resigned, reportedly over concerns that the team’s findings would be prematurely released before the election in November.
The Clinton Foundation investigation began about five years ago, under the Obama administration, and stalled in part because some former career law enforcement officials viewed the case as too weak to issue subpoenas. Ultimately, prosecutors in Arkansas secured a subpoena for the charity in early 2018. To date, the case has not resulted in criminal charges.
Some former law enforcement officials declined to talk to Mr. Durham’s team about the foundation investigation because they felt the nature of his inquiry was highly unusual, according to people familiar with the investigation. Mr. Durham’s staff members sought information about the debate over the subpoenas that the F.B.I. tried to obtain in 2016 and have also approached current agents about the matter, but it is not clear what they told investigators.
A spokesman for Mr. Durham declined to comment.
“The Clinton Foundation has regularly been subjected to baseless, politically motivated allegations, and time after time these allegations have been proven false,” the foundation said in a statement. Right-wing news media and prominent Republicans have long promoted a narrative that the F.B.I.’s leadership and the Justice Department under the Obama administration were biased in favor of Hillary Clinton. They have accused agents and prosecutors of aggressively investigating Mr. Trump and his associates — ignoring evidence to the contrary — while moving more cautiously on allegations of corruption at the Clinton Foundation and Mrs. Clinton’s use of a private email server to conduct government business while she was secretary of state.
“There was a clear double standard by the Department of Justice and F.B.I. when it came to the Trump and Clinton campaigns in 2016,” said Senator Lindsey Graham of South Carolina, the Republican chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee and a staunch supporter of Mr. Trump.
In the Russia investigation, F.B.I. officials did take aggressive steps such as obtaining a secret wiretap to eavesdrop on a former Trump adviser. But they also moved quietly, deploying informants and an undercover agent in part to keep the existence of the investigation from becoming public and affecting the 2016 election.
Mr. Barr has repeatedly attacked the Russia inquiry as Mr. Durham has investigated it, calling it “one of the greatest travesties in American history” and ignoring a policy that generally prohibits the department from making public statements about current investigations. Mr. Barr’s statements have raised hopes among the president’s supporters that Mr. Durham will unearth evidence of a plot to sabotage Mr. Trump’s campaign and presidency.
So far, only one person has been charged with criminal wrongdoing: Kevin E. Clinesmith, a former F.B.I. lawyer who pleaded guilty to altering an email that investigators relied on to renew an application for a secret wiretap on the former Trump campaign adviser Carter Page.
The president and his Republican allies have tried to cast the Clinton Foundation, a philanthropic organization, as corrupt, accusing Mrs. Clinton of taking steps as secretary of state to support the interests of foundation donors. Critics have suggested that she was part of a quid pro quo in which the foundation received large donations in exchange for supporting the sale of Uranium One, a Canadian company with ties to mining stakes in the United States, to a Russian nuclear agency. The deal was approved by the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States when Mrs. Clinton was secretary of state under President Barack Obama and had a voting seat on the panel.
The allegations against Mrs. Clinton were advanced in the book “Clinton Cash,” by Peter Schweizer, a senior editor at large at Breitbart News, the right-wing outlet once controlled by Mr. Trump’s former top aide Stephen K. Bannon. The book contained multiple errors, and the foundation has dismissed its allegations.
But the book caught the attention of F.B.I. agents, who viewed some of its contents as additional justification to obtain a subpoena for foundation records.
Top officials in Justice Department criminal division denied a request in 2016 from senior F.B.I. managers in Washington to secure a subpoena, determining that the bureau lacked a sufficient basis for it and that the book had a political agenda, former officials said. Some prosecutors at the time felt the book had been discredited.
The decision frustrated some agents who believed they had enough evidence beyond the book, including a discussion that touched on the foundation and was captured on a wiretap in an unrelated investigation. Other F.B.I. officials at the time believed the conversation’s relevance to the foundation case was tenuous at best.
The disagreement erupted anew later in the summer of 2016, when a top Justice Department official suspected that F.B.I. agents in New York were trying to persuade federal prosecutors in Brooklyn to authorize a subpoena after the department’s criminal division officials in Washington had declined such a request. By the time the F.BI. officials revisited the issue, the Justice Department officials were also concerned that serving subpoenas would violate the practice of avoiding such investigative activity so close to an election.
Ultimately, the Clinton Foundation dispute embroiled Andrew G. McCabe, then the F.B.I. deputy director, who was accused of leaking information about the case to a reporter and later lying about it to the Justice Department inspector general. The episode helped prompt Mr. McCabe’s firing in 2018 and a failed effort by the Justice Department to prosecute him. The foundation case — which had been spread among F.B.I. field offices in New York, Los Angeles, Washington and Little Rock, Ark. — sputtered until Mr. Trump was elected. In early 2018, Patrick C. Harris, a career prosecutor in Little Rock, issued a grand jury subpoena for foundation records, two former law enforcement officials familiar with the investigation said.
A foundation official confirmed that the charity was served with a subpoena and complied with the request for information.
Republicans in 2017 had called for a second special counsel to investigate the foundation, but Rod J. Rosenstein, then the deputy attorney general, did not believe the scant evidence collected in the case justified one, a person familiar with the matter said. Instead, Jeff Sessions, the attorney general at the time, asked John W. Huber, the U.S. attorney in Utah, to review whether federal law enforcement officials had fully investigated the matter.
Shortly after Mr. Durham began his review, Mr. Barr said in an interview with CBS News in May 2019 that Mr. Huber was winding down his work related to Mrs. Clinton. In January, The Washington Post reported that Mr. Huber’s investigation had ended; its findings were not made public. Mr. Trump later attacked Mr. Huber, accusing him of doing “absolutely NOTHING.”
submitted by Gingerroot966 to conspiracy_commons [link] [comments]

2020.09.23 22:03 Embrodak1 [ARMA 3] Impromptu Zeus OP 5 - Saturday, Sept. 26th @1900 UTC

Calendar Details:2020-09-26 19:00Arma 3Impromptu Zeus OP 5

Impromptu Zeus OP 5


When? 19:00 UTC
Get the mods through our mod downloader, Swifty
Want more info? Our documentation
Join our Arma unit:
Recommended reading:
If you have any issues with mods or teamspeak, do not hesitate to contact the event host or any of the helpers on teamspeak or Discord. DM on Discord and Reddit PM are the easiest way to get a hold of the event host.

Maps and Mods required:

We will be fighting on Takistan. Please Download CUP Terrains - Maps.


Takistan is still posing a thorn in our side. They have been a close ally of the Russians since the start of the war and are continuing to supply them with oil to fuel the Russian war effort. The British are tasked with attacking and securing Takistan to cut off the supply of fuel to Russia.


We will be entering the region from the north. The first priority is to secure Rasman and its airbase to base Fixed wing aircraft to gain air superiority in the region. After that we must secure the town of Nagara and the oil fields surrounding it. Once Nagara is secure we will push south into the crossroads of Bastam. Once Bastam is secure we will have to hold it from Takistani counter attacks. If we make unexpectedly quick progress we will continue down the MSR and secure the next major town of Feruz Abad.


Map of the AO
  • Secure Rasman and the Air Base
  • Secure Nagara
  • Secure Bastam
  • Defend Bastam from enemy counter attacks
  • If time permits, Secure Feruz Abad

Friendly Forces:

We are a Mechanized British platoon with access to Warrior IFVs and a Landrover with a Milan to handle heavier assets.
We have a friendly platoon to the East securing the oil fields near Zavarak. They will be dealing with their own issues so don't expect support from them for a while.
A battery of 3 105mm howitzers are on standby to provide support when needed.

Civilians and ROE:

Civilians are in the AO, however they aren't stupid. Once they realize there is a war going on they will most likely get the hell out of dodge and away from the fighting. That doesn't mean you can just go crazy and blow everything up. Avoid damage to civilian property and infrastructure and do not engage civilians for whatever reason.

Enemy Forces:

The enemy is the Takistani military. They are armed with AKs and RPGs. They have access to older BTRs, BMPs and possibly even T-55s although they are unlikely to risk these tanks unless they get really desperate.

Support and Equipment:

4x FV510 Warrior Infantry Fighting Vehicles
1x Landrover armed with a Milan ATGM Launcher
We have 3 105mm howitzers on standby. The CO and 2IC have access to them through SSS.


Use this in your slotting comment:
IGN: Embrodak Discord Name: Embrodak Slot: Alpha Medic 
CO, squad leaders and special roles (all roles in bold letters) should join the teamspeak 30 minutes before the event starts for planning the mission.
If this is your first event with us we would also like to ask you to join 30 minutes early for a quick introduction to MC.
This list is not guaranteed to be up to date! Do a quick look through the comments to make sure your slot hasn't already been claimed.
You need to have played at least three events with us for all leadership and special roles like pilots or vehicle crew.
Callsign/Role IGN Equipment
High Command Embrodak A +2 Lightning Bolt
CO aka Kingpin Red L85A3 and a can of Ripit
2IC SaltyR L85A3
Platoon Medic Lelldorin L85A3
Alpha SL Darthaethous L85A3
Medic Hansel L85A3
Automatic Rifleman Smol Ne L110A3 SAW
Assistant Automatic Rifleman L85A3
Fireteam Leader LordPhil L85A3
Grenadier Snuffles L85A3 w/ UGL
Rifleman AT Krakon L85A3 w/ NLAW
Rifleman Legensassy L85A3
APC Gunner klausman L22A2
APC Driver L22A2
Bravo SL Welshie (TheNerd) L85A3
Medic L85A3
Automatic Rifleman Uk_DEVIL L110A3 SAW
Assistant Automatic Rifleman L85A3
Fireteam Leader L85A3
Grenadier L85A3 w/ UGL
Rifleman AT L85A3 w/ NLAW
Rifleman L85A3
APC Gunner Libation L22A2
APC Driver L22A2
Charlie SL Squire_Gareth L85A3
Medic Scarecrow L85A3
Automatic Rifleman L110A3 SAW
Assistant Automatic Rifleman L85A3
Fireteam Leader Kira L85A3
Grenadier MaevisFR L85A3 w/ UGL
Rifleman AT Michael L85A3 w/ NLAW
Rifleman starscape678 L85A3
APC Gunner Piloh L22A2
APC Driver Anton L22A2

Reserve: Syrupy_M00se, Gunsalot

submitted by Embrodak1 to The_Misfit_Company [link] [comments]

2020.09.22 23:19 Username_4477 How Well does the Strength Transfers from Advance Bodyweight Training to Free Weight? With 10 Examples

Because of the pandemic many people have been forced to workout without weights and they are curious how it would affect their lifts. I have been curious about the strength transfer as well and for a while I have been collecting some examples to give you an idea of how much strength can be transferred through bodyweight training. I'll give some examples and you are welcome to share your experience in the comments.
I have tried my best to give you examples that are trustable, either have a video testimony of a one rep max or they are really strong people and their strength ratio matches with other people similar to that level. I'm mainly gonna use the bench press for this.
I'll mention their height, weight and strength level whenever possible.
  1. Brandon Wynn. He was a national artistic gymnast from United States. His ring strength level is very high (just below the Olymic level). His height is 5'7". He bench pressed 415 pounds at the bodyweight of 167 pounds. In a separate video he bench pressed 1.36x times his bodyweight for 21 reps straight. It's unknown if he bench presses regularly or not. Maybe now he does but I doubt he used to when competing.
  2. Nile Wilson. Nile Wilson is an Olymic medallist from UK. However his main focus is high bar and parralal bar not rings (don't get me wrong he's very good at rings, just not Brandon's level). His height is around 5'5" and weight is 62 kg (136 lbs). 5 years ago when he was 19 he bench pressed 90kg (198 pounds) for three reps that too during a rehab from a shoulder injury. 3 years ago he maxed out on 105 kg (231 lbs) and almost pressed 110kg (242lbs) but failed. He doesn't bench press regularly.
  3. Austin Dunham. He's a YouTuber from US. He's pretty intermediate in today's standard in calisthenics strength. He can hold full planche, do full planche push ups etc. His height is 5'10". 3 years ago he bench pressed 255 pounds in first try at the bodyweight of 156lbs A year ago he tested it again and it was 275 lbs (but the form was pretty bad as many people say. Back was arching too much). He never bench presses.
  4. coolgymnast (on YouTube). I don't know his real name. He is a former member of the Penn State University gymnastic team and most likely he competed in nationals as well. Very skilled ring gymnast. He has videos of him doing the hardest ring skills on YouTube that dates back to 11 years. I don't know his height (probably 5'5"-5'7") but once he said that he bench pressed 350 lbs at the weight of 160 lbs. He never bench presses.
  5. Metin Dabak (Littlebeastm on YouTube). He was one of the strongest people in heavy weight calisthenics during the 2012 era since when the new school calisthenics (that is more gymnastics oriented) started getting more popular by Russians. He had very high weighted dips and pull ups and a strong banana planche push ups He bench pressed 150 kg (330lbs), at the bodyweight of 90kg (198 pounds). However it's doubtable that it was his first time (his technique was too good) but was very impressive none the less.
  6. Artem Morozov. A very strong and skinny athlete/coach/YouTuber from Russia. He's very strong with planche, Maltese, one arm handstand etc. He invented the skill "The Impossible Dip". But he is very lightweight and very skinny. During one of his live streams I asked him this questions and he answered some years ago he bench pressed 100 kg (225 lbs) at the weight of 56kg (123 lbs). He never bench presses.
  7. Viktor Kamenov. One of the most popular and strongest calisthenics athlete ever. He used to have the world record for a full planche hold (35 seconds). He also holds the world record for most full planche press and Hefesto (really recommending checking out his compliations if you haven't already). He was one of the firat peoppe ro hold a full planche on 2 fingers (2 fingers each arm). He won national championship in Bulgaria 3 times, got a second place in SWWC (Street Workout World Cup) in 2017 and has over 20 1st places in different competitions in Bulgaria. He's around 5'6"-5'7". He bench pressed 135kg (297lbs) at the bodyweight of 71kg (156lbs). His squat is 120kg (264lbs). He never bench presses.
  8. Dan Jeong. He's a very strong calisthenics athelet from South Korea. He can hold a full planche. His height is 175cm (5'7.5") and weight 82kg (180 pounds). He bench pressed 130kg (286 lbs). He never bench presses however he did few weeks of bench press training before the attempt to get his technique right.
  9. Denis Smirsov, a game developer and calisthenics athlete from Russia did 242lbs bench press on the first try at the bodyweight of 173lbs. He never bench presses. He also curled 135lbs.
  10. David Grigoryan (CalisthenicsDude on YouTube). He's a 19 years old Swedish gymnast (I don't think he competes though). He's pretty good with ring stuffs, like Van Gelder, Inverted Cross. He told me that a year ago he bench pressed 98kg (216lbs) at the bodyweight of 58kg (127lbs). He never bench presses. His height is 5'7".
General conclusion: Of course it won't be same for everyone. But it seems like if you are good with handstand push ups and can hold a planche on Rings you should be able to bench press more than 1.6x your bodyweight in first try even without knowing the technique.
So there were 10 examples. You can share your experience in comments. Doesn't have to be bench press though, it could be anything even weighted dip or pull ups.
submitted by Username_4477 to bodyweightfitness [link] [comments]

2020.09.17 16:59 koine_lingua Response to "If you are a smug Democrat or leftist coming here to see how 'stupid' we are..." on /r/Republican

So I'm actually kind of uncertain about the rules for posting here. I know the actual rule section states that "unless you identify as Republican that you refrain from commenting "; though I feel like from the time I've spent here, I haven't seen this upheld very often.
Maybe my post will be removed, as I'm unambiguously not a Republican, and am pretty clearly left-leaning in most of my views. I figure, though, that since your post is explicitly directed at left-leaning individuals, and since a number of commenters here are inviting them to respond, that it might be considered a bit of a one-off exception.
Just to be clear on a few things: I wouldn't consider myself smug, nor do I come here with any notions about how "stupid" the posters here are — though (like other subreddits representing other political perspectives) I do recognize this as a partisan subreddit, where I think views are often expressed far too carelessly and hostilely.
I'm not a centrist, even if I don't consider my political beliefs to be the most important type of beliefs that I hold as a person, and even though I put great emphasis on finding common ground when it comes to dialogue.
On one last note, I don't think much productive discussion is usually had around these kinds of "gotcha" posts. The main type of argument that this post seems to be centered around is tu quoque, or whataboutism; and I think that this style usually just drags both sides down, and comes dangerously close to the view that two wrongs make a right.
So the style of this post presents hyphenated claims that have presumably been expressed by some Democrats/leftists, followed by a critical response in bold. I'll quote that format as is, and then comment on each item.
  • Trump is trying to encourage peace in the world. He's making moves to end the wars we are in.
Democrats have brought the violence here to our streets. They are failing to condemn it and normalizing the idea that even more will happen if they don't get what they want.
Ideologically/philosophically, I'm a bit more of a rigid pacifist than most; so you won't see me condoning violence. You'll see how a number of my responses here are influenced by this.
In terms of foreign policy and militarism: Trump's stated views, and a number of his actions, indeed tend toward the non-interventionist direction, which is commendable. One question here, though, is whether there's a sort of inevitability to the "war machine," as it relates to the assertion of American power and in the administration's actions in relation to inherited conflicts; and I think this is part of what leads some commentators to speak in terms of some contradictions here. For example, this short piece in Foreign Policy begins by stating
On matters of war and peace, U.S. President Donald Trump says what he means but rarely does what he says; the result has been his administration’s contradictory combination of hawkish militarism and strategic retrenchment. Alongside Trump’s overt militarism—demonstrated in practice by the expansion of troop deployments and airstrikes in the wars he inherited—he has, paradoxically, repeated a rhetorical preference for reducing certain overseas military commitments, both deployments and wars.
(I'll leave to others to determine whether all the assessments in the full article that's quoted here are fair or not. I quote it more so just to showcase more complex views of this than out of blanket agreement. Also, it was written in 2019, and as such obviously doesn't take into account recent peace deals.)
Turning to the domestic situation: I still think that the overwhelming trend is for people on all sides to make a substantive distinction between committed political protesters and opportunistic rioters — certainly including Joe Biden. That being said, the symbiotic (or maybe parasitic?) relationship between political protest and rioting and destruction has always been a super thorny issue — prominent during the civil rights protests, for example, and something that those like Martin Luther King, Jr. famously struggled with.
But yes, again, as someone who leans pretty firmly in a pacifist direction, I'm uncomfortable with normalizing violence, even if some might characterize it as an "inevitable" byproduct of profound political and social change.
  • You tell us Black Lives Matter is just about better police treatment of black people.
Trump doesn't control the police, so why were people trying to storm the White House?
Along with some of what I said in my previous comments, storming the White House is silly and won't accomplish anything, but isn't necessarily contradictory to the larger aims of Black Lives Matter in terms of reducing racial discrimination. (Nor do I think that those more misplaced actions should be taken to be representative of Black Lives Matter supporters as a whole.)
And not by way of justification, but by way of explanation, the President — any President — will always be a figurehead, real and symbolic, for larger political and social views. (And on another note, while the Trump administration indeed doesn't control police, the issue of law enforcement funding is indeed a federal issue, over which Trump and Biden obviously have some differing views.)
  • It's just about "unfair treatment".
Why do you all ignore the ACTUAL justice reform that Trump signed?
First and foremost, justice reform isn't just about one thing. Also, for what it's worth, the First Step Act is almost certainly the measure supported by the Trump administration that has the greatest amount of bipartisan support, and passed 87-12 in the Senate.
We should probably be careful about overstating the amount of reforms initiated by the Trump administration, though. In the section on justice reform on the official site for Trump accomplishments, for example, this seems to center almost exclusively on the First Step Act. (Also, just on a more historical note, the First Step Act has its roots in the 2015 Sentencing Reform and Corrections Act. That's not to downplay its significance, but to give a bit more context about its origins.)
  • You think we care nothing about people's lives.
But you don't say anything about states that passed bills making it legal to abort a child literally as it's being born.
I think it'd be silly to think that Republicans and others don't care about people's lives. More generally speaking, I think that both strongly-held pro-choice beliefs and pro-life beliefs both come from concern for people's lives; and/or what might best be described as moral intuitions — sometimes at the expense of rational justification and argument.
That being said, I actually don't know anything about (what I assume) is the debate over "partial-birth abortion," so I won't say anything else about this item.
  • You think we are selfish for wanting to go to church.
How many crowded funerals did George Floyd get, again?
I'd honestly think that the vast majority of criticism here is aimed specifically at church-going that pretty flagrantly refuses to practice social distancing. But yes, I think improper social distancing should be condemned no matter where it takes place. It really, really sucks to be where we are, especially when it comes to our inability to grieve and be with people.
  • You chose Biden and try to sell him as a reasonable centrist.
We know that he may have been that 20 years ago, but he's changed his agenda to be far more "progressive."
I'm not someone who's necessarily inclined to apologize for a more substantive shift to the left. That being said, it remains to be seen how much of Biden's rhetoric here is simply more... opportunistic, in terms of appealing to a wider, younger base that leans far more progressive, whereas he'd be aware that there's little he could really do in terms of more progressive measures actually passing in the Senate.
  • You tell us we're "selfish, greedy bastards."
Republicans give more than Democrats do to charity, and do so at all levels of income.
Some may say that, but I’d never make such a statement.
That Republicans are more charitable than Democrats is a well established fact; and there's no excuse for that — we have to do better. Maybe taking a closer look to try to found out exactly why this is the case can yield some interesting insights, though. (As it stands, I know virtually nothing about that.)
  • You say that Trump is going to have roaming bands of Nazi brownshirts on the streets terrorizing people.
You are now gathering to harass diners trying to eat meals outside...demanding they raise their fists, political figures trying to have dinner are being accosted, conservative journalists have had to move from their homes, you are shouting death threats outside the Senate Majority leader's house and now BLM apparently has a group targeting racist "citizens" to show up at their homes...
Again, as someone fairly committed to non-violence, you won't see me defend these more extreme actions. I do think, though, that at the same time that there are those who opportunistically hijack this movement for more anarchistic or radical purposes, there are a number of people on the other side who also over-eager to use moments like these to make radical political and social statements of their own. (I'll pick this back up in the section about armed protestors.)
Hit the character limit; continued below.
Part 2
  • You say that WE are "in a cult".
You have most major media giving you talking points that you agree with and you discuss how you've had to cut actual family and friends out of your life because they like "Mango Mussolini".
If my takeaway from the point about charity is that we Democrats/etc. have to do better, the takeaway from this one is is that we all have to do better. We especially need to work on not allowing ourselves to by riled up by media commentators — along with being more critical when some of their same sensationalism can spill over into the non-commentary section, too.
As for relationships with friends and family: I struggle with this in my personal life, too. Specifically, while I have an iron-clad policy to never initiate a political conversation or anything with my father, he sends me very sensationalist media and videos unsolicited all the time; and when I try to engage in some of the most respectful conversation about some of these things, he has a tendency to lose his temper very quickly. I know some struggle with the opposite problem.
  • You say that you are the ones who love minorities.
The vitriol that you express towards any member of a minority group that champions conservative beliefs is testimony that you do not.
I think this is one of the weaker responses in your post. It's easy to distinguish larger concern for a populace's well-being from political differences with individual minorities, without thinking the latter entails the former. But yes, occasionally, the idea that minorities can "vote against their own interests" (etc.) can be expressed silly and insensitive ways that have racist connotations — see Biden's "you ain’t black" comment.
  • You say that taking our kids to church is child abuse because they are impressionable.
But when kids are taken to riots by antifa parents and tear gas is deployed, it's the cops' fault for endangering the kids.
I'd imagine the view that taking kids to church s child abuse is fairly radical and uncommon. I'd imagine taking your kids to an Antifa rally is similarly radical and uncommon. I think focusing on these rare events creates more heat than light.
  • You say that you love America.
You voted for a dude that wanted it fundamentally say that "it was never great" and some of you are openly wanting a socialist state and you are burning American flags in the streets now.
I think that "fundamentally transformed" can easily be taken more charitably. The Constitution and other legal fundamentals represent a certain set of principles that can't be abandoned; but it also allows for a wide range of views and policies re: how America should function politically and socially.
I’m aware that many have strongly held views about our "national" moral failures. And related to ths, one time, my dad expressed some very strong and disturbing views about Colin Kaepernick and his original protest. I tried to explain that I don't think his was a statement of anti-Americanism, but a provocative challenge to perceptions of the "America" of unbridled optimism, instead calling attention to those who have continually experienced America in a different, painful way (and who obviously looked forward to a day where they didn't have this experience).
  • Teachers are concerned that "conservative parents" might overhear the lessons they are teaching our kids.
You think they have a right to be scared of the parents who are paying their salaries.
I honestly have very little idea of what this is in reference to, so I'll skip this one. (Though I think it also risks conflating "some teachers" with "all teachers.")
  • You snidely said, "All buildings matter" on 9/11.
BLM Riots Are Officially the Most Costly Man made Damage to American Property in History
“All buildings matter” is silly statement basically expressing whataboutism — trying to critique a perceived disproportionate focus on 9/11 by comparing it to anti-BLM sentiment, which presumably is premising on pushing back on (what's perceived to be) a disproportionate focus on a relatively small number of lives.
  • You think you are the ones who understand civics.
You still insist that Hillary really won the 2016 election.
Maybe there's a (small) movement of people who think Clinton really won the electoral vote; but so far as it goes for most people, this obviously comes down to different philosophical views about the role of the electoral college vs. popular vote in determining the President.
  • You used to deny being socialists.
Now you often try to make self-posts here asking us, "What's wrong with having socialism?"
I won't say too much about this one. Somehow, though, I imagine that most of these aren't calls for "full-blown" socialism, but attempts to establish some common ground re: the necessity of a number of programs and initiatives of social welfare.
  • You think that kids making MAGA videos is wrong and exploitative.
But at the same age it's okay for other kids to do dancing in drag at strip clubs.
This is definitely one of the most bizarre and seemingly absurd items here. I can't imagine how small the number of people is that thinks it's okay for kids to be dancing in drag at strop club. But yes, I think that almost no one under the age of 14 or so is capable of grasping the nuance of most political debates (though I suppose that applies far beyond age 14), and that any media paying attention to this is sensationalism by very definition.
  • You demand that subreddits that seem to encourage violence and are conservative be "shut down".
You defend subreddits that advocate violence from the side that is currently PERPETRATING violence in the streets.
I've honestly never followed a lot of the controversy here, so I don't have anything to say on this. Again, though, as someone bit more inclined toward pacifism than most, I'd imagine this is an area that we have to do better on.
  • You complained when re open protests had armed people at them.
A member of a black militia actually opened fire accidentally at a BLM protest and shot three comrades in Louisville. We never hear about it.
In tandem with what I said in my previous comment, I have more blanket opposition toward weapons altogether. At the same time, I still support concealed carry, and would prefer to see much less open carry here — and I think we'd see much less violence here.
  • You think we're poorly informed due to the terrible media we consume.
You still don't know the true story of what happened to the Covington kids in DC and you still want Nick Sandmann to suffer for that hate-smirk.
I do think that our choice of media — particularly its emphasis on opinion/commentary — has a profound and negative effect on political thought, and especially dialogue. As for me personally, at the time of the Covington incident, I spent a great deal of time writing an objective account of events.
  • You think that Russia somehow nefariously influenced the last election via social media.
But you never question who might be behind your favorite left-wing social media sites and posts.
With the caveat that I haven't spent a lot of time researching this issue Russian state influence on social media here, my understanding was that this wasn't exactly a conspiracy theory, and more solidly established. Whatever the case, though, I think that something like this should be a concern to both sides of the political aisle, less than an opportunity to engage in whataboutism.
  • Trump has increased troop pay, improved military readiness, invested in support and worked for REAL reform for a VA long beleaguered by problems.
You tried to float the idea that Trump hates the troops.
My understanding (having not spent a ton of time focusing on issues like this in particular) is that the ideas of a reduced military readiness, etc., could be misleading at best.
As for Trump's personal attitude toward those in the military: one major thing I've learned from having spent extensive time critically analyzing the way we form and maintain beliefs is that way some of the ways our different views and opinions relate to each other can be complicated and perplexing. They can even be contradictory. It's certainly possible that Trump can both have respect for the military and service members as a whole, while at same time also harboring more cynical sentiments, too. (The same goes for his purported views about evangelical Christians, etc.)
  • You said it was grossly offensive, horrible, awful and racist to blame the virus on China.
But every day you slog on trying to blame the virus on Trump.
I think "responsibility" for COVID is spread out a lot more diffusely than some think, even domestically. But at the same time I think Trump's is a calculated deflection.
  • You complain at how the virus is decimating the economy.
But you don't care that the House won't get together with the Senate to cooperate on a Covid relief bill.
I wouldn’t have thought of the original claim as an idiosyncratically Democratic view. I also haven’t followed debate/analysis of the congressional talks about the relief bills, so I have nothing of value to add on that. I'll only say that obstructionism is in many ways the MO of the legislative branch as whole, and I think usually both sides end up making each other look bad, even if one could be said to be acting in more “good faith” than the other.
Hit character limit again; a little more below.
Part 3
  • You think it's too dangerous to vote in person.
But you think these protests just have to happen because the cause is too important.
I think this one has some slight nuance that I can't get fully into due to running out of character space. As a whole, though, if people believe this, I can't see it as anything other than hypocrisy. But again, I think it'd be silly to use that as the basis for insisting on one and not the other.
  • You think that white people are clueless and pretty racist and generally kinda bad and responsible for most of the suffering in the world.
But you want us to adopt the Nordic model of healthcare.
I think this is another of the weaker responses. I think very few of those (white persons) emphasizing the role of systemic racism are unaware that most governments officials — even ones they support — are, well, white. And I think it's silly to accuse them of hypocrisy in this. (I guess I just think "[y]ou think white people are clueless and pretty racist" is a pretty ridiculous characterization in the first place.)
  • You are LGBTQ+ - supportive!
... but when 45% of gay men say that they are backing Trump...SUDDENLY they are "immoral."
I feel much the same way about this comment as I do about your previous one about minority Trump supporters. I'd imagine a number of people were surprised at those poll results (on the dating app Hornet); but I don't think their surprise — and/or dismay — would have anything whatsoever to do with thinking that they were now immoral for being gay.
  • You've spent years blaming anti-vaxx on "the right."
But when Biden and Harris suggested that they wouldn't trust a Covid 19 vaccine because Trump is President, you were silent. They lied, people died?
I haven't really formed an opinion about this yet. For context, though, this Axos article quoting Biden's statement in full reads as follows:
“Let me be clear: I trust vaccines, I trust scientists, but I don’t trust Donald Trump,” Biden said. He then called on Trump to answer the following three questions, and said the American people should not have confidence if the president can't answer them:
"What criteria will be used to ensure that a vaccine meets the scientific standard of safety and effectiveness?"
"If the administration greenlights a vaccine, who will validate that the decision was driven by science rather than politics? What group of scientists will that be?"
"How can we be sure that the distribution of the vaccine will take place safely, cost-free and without a hint of favoritism?"
(End Biden quote.)
  • You keep insisting that the USA is the worst nation at dealing with Covid...
Per population, seven other countries have done "worse"...they are Belgium, the UK, Spain, Peru, Italy, Sweden and Chile.
If someone's misrepresented the statistics here, they should correct their view. On the other hand, I don't think the battle for "least worst" is particularly glorious one.
  • You seem to oppose any measure that would make our vote more secure and less prone to fraud. You insist that fraud doesn't happen.
But you are yelling that somehow Republicans are going to steal the election via some nebulous voter fraud.
I think both Democrats and Republicans have an interest in election security, but differing views on how to go about this — some more self-interested than others. I don't think there's a blanket denial that there's actually no election fraud whatsoever; just push-back against sensationalism about its prevalence. (I think anyone who thinks that there are millions of fraudulent votes is clearly engaging in a baseless conspiracy theory. I'd be surprised if there were more than 1,000 instances in any national election.)
But yes, by the same token, Democrats can also engage in this kind of hyperbole/hysteria about massive Russian-influenced voter fraud or whatever.
  • You think that our only objections to Obama were mustard and that tan suit. And only because we are racist.
IRS scandal, unconstitutional DACA, health reform disaster, Fast and Furious, disappearing stimulus money, spying on journalists and persecuting Fox, Iran pallets of cash, incoherent Middle East name a few...
I think we all need to be a lot more critical of the politicians we support, even if it's inconvenient or uncomfortable. I think a number of those are perfectly valid reasons for criticizing things that took place during the Obama administration — of course bearing in mind that it's not always direct Obama appointees, etc., who bear the brunt of responsibility for these scandals. (The same goes for the Trump administration, or any other one.) I think Trump of all people could/should admit that not everything that takes place in the course of an administration is the responsibility/fault of the administration.
  • You suddenly think you need guns because Trump is "worse than Hitler" and you might need to protect yourself from the government.
You are going to vote for a man who just tweeted that he's going to take the guns.
I'm assuming this is the tweet in question:
Weapons of war have no place in our communities.
We need to ban assault weapons and high-capacity magazines.
This coheres with the stated policy on the official Biden policy site:
Ban the manufacture and sale of assault weapons and high-capacity magazines. Federal law prevents hunters from hunting migratory game birds with more than three shells in their shotgun. That means our federal law does more to protect ducks than children. It’s wrong. Joe Biden will enact legislation to once again ban assault weapons. This time, the bans will be designed based on lessons learned from the 1994 bans. For example, the ban on assault weapons will be designed to prevent manufacturers from circumventing the law by making minor changes that don’t limit the weapon’s lethality. While working to pass this legislation, Biden will also use his executive authority to ban the importation of assault weapons.
I'm sure opinions range on whether this is a good thing or not; but calling this "taking your guns" is doubly inaccurate, in that 1) it doesn't suggest anything about taking these existing weapons from their currents owners, and 2) it seems to suggest a blanket ban on "guns" in general.
submitted by koine_lingua to u/koine_lingua [link] [comments]

2020.09.17 13:02 closeprotections Close Protection London Close Protection Services London

Close protection – is a concept that has been known for ages – it has been with us since early days of humankind and now its condition is more than satisfactory. Since time immemorial, people have tried to protect their wealth, assets, as well as their own health, life, and welfare. By means of the transfer of gathered goods, wealthy individuals have been paying other parties to protect them, their families, and possessions from others. As a general rule, young, notably strong, and grim-looking individuals have been considered perfectly suitable for such a job. The idea behind such a choice has been to scare away a potential adversary by taking advantage of the very looks of the guard. The aforementioned state of affairs has been observed for the consecutive ages. Wealthy landowners and kings created their own trusted guards (in ancient times and during the medieval age, those were troops designated to protect the authorities; later on, they were transformed into elite soldiers). Aside from serving representative and managerial purposes, such individuals were required to take care of their master and his beloved ones. In the 11th century England, during the Battle of Hastings, King Harold assembled a group of troops to protect his life and widely understood health condition. One may consider them to be the ancestors of modern bodyguards. As both civilization and society progressed, there were an increasing number of various organizations and people. Therefore, the risk of attack was significantly higher. Numerous authorities attempted to discourage potential aggressors from committing a crime by introducing severe forms of punishment. It must be noted, however, that there was still the question if it was enough to protect high authorities and the wealthy from the effects of outside attacks. The protection-oriented market has been developing to be – at some point – dominated by professional soldiers. The said progression has made it possible for police officers to investigate and deal with common, less dangerous crimes only. Together with technical revolution and the increasing social awareness, the number of citizens not satisfied with the current order skyrockets. It is likely to cause radical groups aiming at the change of the existing ruling paradigm to occur. This in turn may lead to anarchy and the increase in people willing to put their antisocial theories and plans into effect. The latter may start from sabotaging the work of others and demolishing valuable devices, but it may also end up in killings. If such a thing happens, one may openly talk about terrorism. The unusual social situation boosts the demand for personal protection. Both the army and police focus on securing the wellbeing of those of high position in the country. The rest of the threatened society must protect itself. The demand identified above has given rise to a new profession – a security guard. In the past, it was performed in a more or less organized fashion and that is why the effectiveness of arising task achievement varied. The attempt on Tsar’s Alexander the Second life on 1st March 1881 is a perfect exemplification of the formulated thesis. The ruler in question was attacked by the members of Narodnaya Volya at 2:15 P.M. A bomb was thrown under the carriage, but its explosion did not harm either the tsar or the horses. Alexander the Second, together with his companion including secret police representatives, started to assess damages. It was a mistake. At 2:20 P.M, yet another bomb was detonated. Its accuracy was notably higher as it managed to severely injure the tsar. He died relatively quickly, even with professional care he was under. At this point, it must be indicated that the demand for close protection increases. However, the perception of it is in a significant number of cases rather faulty, leading to pitiful outcomes. As it was hundreds of years earlier, modern people tend to hire grim musclemen to protect them, disregarding the fact that their intellectual level and possessed knowledge are negligible. Formerly, a test had to be passed in order for a person to be considered a bodyguard. Unfortunately, it does not hold true anymore. On numerous occasions, we can observe security guards stylized to look like stats of action movies, with the lack of intelligence written all over their faces. To give them justice, such people may also perform exceptionally well – up to the time they encounter a real attack. Unprofessional guards may be employed to protect rock stars or boxers. Real bodyguards of today are, however, highly skilled and motivated. They are trained to prevent rather than to counteract, as it may be too late in the latter case. Such people are capable of estimating potential risk and juxtaposing it with the resources at their disposal that may minimize it. Modern security guards are physically active, as well as skilled in giving first aid and driving a car defensively. They can fight without using any weapon – especially by taking advantage of psychology and persuasion. Such people are proficient in at least two languages and are characterized by an above-average intelligence level. The described model of a security guard is perfectly suited to current conditions and the needs of individuals hiring them.

VIP close protection over the world – organizations specializing in personal protection. One of the most famous and at the same time – the oldest organized bodies dealing with close protection was created in the 19th century. It was the American United States Secret Service. The USSS was created in 1865 as the US Treasury Law Enforcement Agency. Secret Service is the oldest national agency focusing entirely on investigations. Initially, their only task was to protect the economic structure of the country by means of preventing governmental cheques and bonds from being counterfeited. The mission was followed up to 1901, when president William McKinley was attacked in Buffalo (NY state). The assault resulted in appointing the Secret Service by the US Congress to protect the newly elected president, Theodore Roosevelt. In 1906, the Congress finally adopted the act on the responsibility of the Secret Service for the safety of the White House. Since 1950, the protection has been extended from presidents and first ladies only to vice-presidents as well. Before the murder of John F. Kennedy in 1963 and senator Robert F. Kennedy in 1968, the Secret Service had been a relatively small organization, employing as many as 284 agents. The discussed events translated directly into its rapid development. Currently, it is stated that over 5000 employees work for the Secret Service. Separate branches of the organization are located all over the United States, in Puerto Rico, and in other places all over the world (Paris, Lyon, London, Bonn, Rome, Milano, Hong Kong, Montreal, Lefkosa, Bogota, and Manila). The representatives of the organization are both secret agents (serving protection and investigation-related roles), as well as uniformed units responsible for the safety of the White House and diplomatic outposts. They maintain law and order by means of the network of both foot and motorized patrols, as well as of fixed posts. Such people also support other branches of the Secret Service. A wide scope of professional is also employed therein – those are electronics, engineers, communication experts, protection-related professionals, and IT workers. The Secret Service protects the president with his family, vice-president, elected vice-president, candidates for the said posts (from the 120th day before the elections onwards), former president, his children up to 16, as well as heads of other states staying in the USA in order to realize international missions. The unit of the Secret Service liable for taking care about the safety of the president in the White House fulfills its duties in identical uniforms. Due to the said fact, the Secret Service is sometimes referred to as the Uniformed Division. Its tasks also include the protection of president’s mansions, diplomatic outposts in Washington, and places alike located within the borders of the USA.

Another known formation is the Swiss Guard (Latin: Cohors Helvetica) which was for the very first time gathered on 22nd January 1506 by the then pope – Julius II. Its major aim was to protect the spiritual successor of Saint Peter and his palace. The pope wanted to grant himself protection from the enemies and avoid a political murder. In 1512, the Guard secured Vatican against French soldiers. The Defendants of the Church, as the representatives of the discussed formation were also called, had to face the biggest trail while taking care of pope Clemens VII during the invasion of Roman emperor, Charles V. The boldness, discipline, and resourcefulness of the representatives of the Guard made it possible to save the life of the pope, even though about 600 bold men died in the process. To commemorate the event, a solemn vow of the newly appointed guards takes place every year on 6th May. Each of the Swiss guards-to-be holds a banner in his left hand and raises his right hand with the thumb and two other fingers in an upright position (it is the symbol of the Holy Trinity). Then, the new soldiers promise to protect the pope and – to die in his defense if necessary. The representatives of the Swiss Guard are chosen from men between the age of 19 and 25 living in one of Swiss cantons (basing on contracts with Zurich and Lucerne). Each of them has to be at least 174 cm (5 feet and a half inch) tall and be an unmarried practicing Catholic (according to a special letter issued by the local bishop). Candidates for the service are properly trained, including teaching them how to use firearms, side arms, as well as how to defend themselves and establish proper contacts with other people. One of the items of the list is the proper usage of halberd. Currently, the number of soldiers in the Guard is estimated to circulate around 120, including officers, junior, and senior soldiers. They serve in the formation from two to twenty-five years. It must be also indicated at this point that officers and senior sergeants may be granted by the pope the right to enter into a holy matrimony. Aside from their characteristic outfit, soldiers are additionally equipped with halberds and Renaissance swords – those are the symbols of formation’s tradition. Nowadays, they are also fitted with firearms, tear gas, and excellent communication-oriented devices. With its almost five hundred years of heritage, the Swiss Guard is one of the oldest active defense-oriented groups in the world. One may assume that it will last until Switzerland and the Catholic Church exist.

Yet another example of a close protection-focused formation is the Cedrug Order, the major task of which is to take care about the ruler of Tibet – Dalai Lama. It comprises of national spiritual authorities who organized themselves in a form of an order. Thanks to strict upbringing, their physical strength is much higher than the one of secular officials. Therefore, the former are the most trusted soldiers caring about the safety of the leader of the nation. Cedurg School is located in the left wing of Potala – the palace of Dalai Lama, which is in turn situated in the Holy City of Lhasa (eastern Tibet, Kyitsu river valley). Every Tibet citizen is allowed to enroll to the school, but only chosen ones are granted the privilege to join the Order. For several hundred years, there have been a limited number of monks allowed, namely – 175. Only selected candidates have been worthy enough to defend the powerful Dalai Lama. Those are especially bold, tall, and muscular men. The representatives of the Order earned their name in 1959, when they protected the king of Tibet against Chinese adversaries.

One of the biggest organizations in the world established to consociate and train bodyguards is the International Bodyguard Association (IBA). The IBA was established in 1957 in Paris by major Lucien Victor Ott. Major Ott had been closely connected to the French Foreign Legion in Algeria since his early childhood. He had been born and raised in the said country. In 1947, he joined the French Special Forces and took part in France-Indochina war. Furthermore, he was the participant of the battle of Dien-Bien Phu that ended with the defeat of the French forces. He was being injured and captured by Vietminh. After a bold escape, he decided to join forces with the French Military Intelligence (Deuxieme Bureau). Major Lucien Ott got famous due to, inter alia, perfect securing of president Charles de Gaulle against the OAS terrorist organization. Thanks to him, 30 prepared attacks were foiled, 11 of which were aimed directly at the head of the state. After the death of the creator of a modern bodyguard profile, major Ott, one of his students – James G. Shortt took care of the management of the IBA. As a young man, he had joined a cadet school. Later on, he had become landing operation troops officer and a member of the elite SAS (Special Air Service) unit. Moreover, during his service, he also taught soldiers in Afghanistan the art of Mujahedeen war. Currently, he teaches security guards, police officers, and soldiers all over the world in the IBA branches. The main aim of the organization is to properly prepare bodyguards-to-be to properly perform their duties. It is not an entity employing such individuals, but those who have presented exceptional skills may become members of royal, diplomatic, or personal guards recommended by the IBA. Coaches being the representatives of the organization trained bodyguards in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, as well as helped during the Baltic Crisis between 1989 and 1991. The qualifications of the International Bodyguard Association are exceptional, international, and backed by the documentation concerning the organization of training sessions for the military, governmental authorities, police, and private bodyguards all over the world. Such undertakings have been continuously performed since 1957. The IBA also operates and trains willing individuals in Poland. Its branch was established in the said country in 1992. The basic training offered to candidates includes 60 hours of comprehensive preparation divided into six consecutive days. After its completion, the candidates are required to undergo the so-called refresher once a year. It is one of the conditions of the membership in the IBA.

Another training organization worth mentioning is the ESI - Executive Security International. It must be highlighted that it is one of the biggest and most appreciated American companies oriented towards training personal protection guards. Its second name is as follows: Bodyguard Training Academy for Executive, Dignitary and Celebrity Protection. The ESI was formed at the beginning of the 80s by Bob Duggan – martial arts expert and master in Hwarang Do. Its creation had been preceded by the establishment of the very first bodyguard training program by the Martial Arts Academy in Aspen, Colorado. The ESI, being one of the USA’s private schools, offers its students over 2000 hours of education with regard to protection, investigation, data gathering, company and individual security, etc. The training unit of the organization is situated high up in the mountains and is run by skilled professionals. Fun fact – film writer, Tracy Keenan Wynn, cooperates with the ESI. His preeminent task has been to create scenarios of situational exercises. While writing them, the said individual takes advantage of real life situations and attacks, such as assaults on Aldo Moro, John Paul the Second, kidnapping of Hans Martin Schleyer by the RAF (Red Army Faction), and scenarios alike. The ESI collaborates with corporations operating in the close protection branch of industry, as well as with the police and military. The organized training sessions are top secret. No journalists are allowed to enter the Aspen unit. Due to the fact that the ESI is a private school, it may provide professional training to civil, police-related, and military institutions all over the world.

The citizens of Israel have never had the chance to feel safe in their country. The issue of safety has been always treated seriously there. Aside from a constant Israel-Arab world conflict threat, the Israelis have been the subjects of terrorist attracts, both within the borders of their country and outside it. Jews and Americans are most frequent victims of operations organized by highly skilled terrorist groups. Taking into account the impact the Russian mafia has on Israel, the amount of care put on widely understood safety is fully justified. The Israeli Special Forces protect their citizens by means of intelligence and security-oriented undertakings. They host training sessions in various organizations preparing bodyguards, providing the adepts with the experience gained during the service. Most famous units of the said kind in Israel are undoubtedly the ISA - International Security Academy and the ISS - International Security School.

ISA is an international organization established and managed by former leaders, police instructors, and special service members. The very first unit of the ISA was formed in Latvia as a training and advising agency for both governmental and private security guards belonging to the Baltic States and the countries of the former USSR. The fact that the ISA is not exclusively Israeli in character is proved by the figure of the organization chairman, major Urlich Wegener – the creator and very first leader of German Border Control Service called GSG 9. The team of instructors and coaches also has international roots. The credo of the organization is that the preparation of the individuals for the proper protection of others is the key. Such people have to be offered highest quality training, extensive knowledge, and practical background. The ISS training programs are based predominantly on the experiences gained in Israel and in other countries, as well as while training people for the purpose of protecting VIPs over the world. Individuals, governmental authorities, and large-size corporations have been taking advantage of the services provided by the ISA/ISS.

At the moment, civil bodyguards are also involved in close protection. The safety of the individuals hiring them, as well as their possessions depends highly on the qualifications of the former. Quite frequently, those are former policemen, soldiers, or special force members. However, a number of inexperienced adepts would like to start their adventure with personal protection as well. Are they bound to fail in their attempts? It is not always so. The most crucial component affecting the effectiveness of the training is one’s psychological preparation. It is a commonly known fact that it is exceptional in former police officers and troops. However, it is a common belief that one can be trained how to perform the job of a bodyguard, just as it is possible to teach a person how to shoot or be properly engaged in melee combat. It all depends on one’s motivation and willingness to achieve success in the industry. Regulations to date limit the training process of a security guard to the moment of being awarded with a license. In order to perform his tasks properly, such a person has to constantly improve his skills and qualifications.

Phenomena connected with the need of utilization of close protection techniques – Terrorism/Terrorist. It goes without saying that terrorism is one of the biggest threats of today’s world. While analyzing the severity of attacks and their scale, one should not doubt that VIPs should be at all possible occasions protected against the aforementioned forms of assault. In order to assess the threat a given problem pose, its specificity must be identified at first. The notion of „terrorism” was for the first time in history used during the Conference of the International Criminal Law Association in Brussels, in 1930. To date, there have been approximately 200 various definitions of the phenomenon in question. While trying to grasp its characteristic features, one will face a number of limitations and difficulties. One of statements of historian Walter Laqueur has to be touched upon here. While asked why he has been avoiding formulating an unequivocal definition of terrorism, he replied: „For 50 or so years, people are constantly trying to understand the idea behind terrorism. It is a phenomenon having different forms, depending on its place of origin and epoch. How can one find common ground between Russian revolutionists from the end of the 19th century and Al-Qaida anarchists?

Terrorism is mainly based on the utilization of force or threat in order to achieve political or ideological goals. It is hard to say something beyond that. Terrorism is like pornography – it escapes logical classification, but if one sees it – then it becomes apparent.” It is hard to argue with the statement, as it perfectly shows the complexity of the phenomenon in question. For the purpose of this publication, a strict definition of terrorism is not needed. All that is required is the utterance formulated by Walter Laqueur stating that terrorism can be most fully perceived through its manifestations. Terrorist acts are undoubtedly illegal, as they are based on kidnapping people and forcedly taking control over means of communication, economic sabotage, attacks, robberies, demanding ransom to finance organization’s own activity, posing threat to life, health, and freedom of authorities, and kidnapping people from outside the area in order to gain publicity (especially journalists, priests, voluntary workers). One may also indicate the usage of explosives and firearms in public areas and poisoning certain spots by means of radioactive materials and chemicals. Longin Tadeusz Szmidt additionally pointed out that terrorism has always been strictly connected with crafty and hard to identify methods of killing the leaders of nations. While describing the phenomenon of terrorism as a threat for the protected person, one should also point out and indicate its sources. The following are enumerated: - social and economic sources that are directly connected to economic crises, social tensions, social and national discrimination, as well as with the perception of dissonance between the factual reality and the one presented by the media; - historical and political sources. They have their beginning in severe social reactions, demanding full democratization and respecting human rights; - sociological sources that may be related to the atmosphere typical for a given country or the so-called spirit of violence; - psychological sources stating that a significant part of terrorists is highly mentally unstable which is additionally combined with the overly high self-esteem. When it comes to the area of attack, the following are proposed by the experts: - land terrorism (the major threat area for VIPs and the key one for security guards), - air terrorism (personal protection is then entrusted to the authorities managing planes, airports, etc.), and – maritime terrorism (tasks and responsibilities are then similar to air attacks). While taking into account the type of terroristic activities, one may distinguish: bombing-based, nuclear, biological, chemical, technical, cybernetic (attacks on IT networks), and narcotic-oriented (narcotic cartels undertakings) terrorism. The highest threat for VIPs is undoubtedly the first type, namely – bombing-based one. Close protection-oriented undertakings should therefore incorporate the knowledge on paradigms effective during a bomb attack. They will be discussed in further sections of this publication. It is exceptionally difficult to argue with the thesis that we must be protected against terrorism. The same applies to VIPs. The importance of the latter is also worth discussing, as the threat is much higher when a top authority is attacked than when the assault poses threat to a pop star or a wealthy businessman. However, it does not limit the necessity to analyze and counteract terroristic attack threat. It may directly impact the safety of the person a given security guard is responsible for.

Crime is also one of the issues that may endanger protected VIPs. Up to the beginning of the 80s, Poland had been considered to be one of the safest countries in Europe. Law enforcement bodies had been numerous and properly financed there, and crime forecasting, prevention, and penalizing schemes had met all the European standards. However, at the end of the discussed period, the myth of threat-free Poland started to crumble. The effects of crime fighting scene were becoming gradually more negligible. The said state of affairs was predominantly caused by the decreasing trust in law enforcing organizations, as well as by the rapid increase in crimes committed by the citizens. Another important aspect that must be taken into account were economic and political changes taking place in 1989,the liberalization of economic activity, and the emergence of free market. Some individuals possessed unimaginable riches, whereas others were exceptionally poor. In order to survive till the next day, the latter searched for the answer in crimes, leading to the occurrence of the phenomenon commonly known as organized crime. According to official data from 2001, within the borders of Poland, there were over 400 organized crime groups consociating approximately 45 thousand people. They were generating profits by means of goods smuggling, selling stolen cars, producing and marketing narcotics, counterfeiting national currency, commuting bank frauds, selling firearms, and – what is of exceptional importance from the point of view of VIPs – demanding ransom. Criminals induce fear in the society, especially due to using terror and blackmailing. They do not hesitate to kidnap others or kill them. Such individuals resort to brutal treatment, such as beating, torturing, drowning, etc. All those factors combined directly translate into wealthy representatives of the society feeling threatened. What is more, criminals frequently tend to attack the family of a VIP as well, in order to convince him to perform a given action. Therefore, children, wife, and beloved ones of such an individual must be highly protected.

Popularity/Fame –The threat of attack may be in some cases linked to the popularity of a given human being. When a VIP is in isolation, then he may only receive unwanted phone calls or be nagged by photographers. The problem arises when he has to leave his place of permanent residence or workplace, as well as when he is in a publically accessible place. Danger may still be low, but the inquisitiveness of journalist may quickly become overwhelming. Fans or supporters of a given sportsman or artist may cause havoc in order to touch their idol or get hold of any item belonging to him or her. Of course, there is also the risk of serious injuries or even death (let us take John Lennon as an example) – it cannot be neglected. That is why famous and popular individuals should by all means care about their safety. The matter also concerns politicians who are widely recognizable and controversial. In politics, there are no limitations. Opponents may even resort to killing a representative of the other side to impose his or her right on others. Elected politicians tend to have close protection, but care should be additionally exercised to care about those running in elections. Such VIPs may be ridiculed by the crowd or the opposition (by throwing eggs or pouring water over the candidate), leading to the end of their political career. The role of security guards should in the aforementioned cases not be limited to physical protection only. They must also keep information about VIP’s family, realized projects, and operation profile confidential. The image of a famous person highly depends on the bodyguards being in his immediate surroundings. The manner of their operation, professionalism, and knowledge are top priorities there.

Attack on person – By definition, attack on person is the attempt to kill someone, steal his or her possessions, as well as to kidnap him or her. The criminal action in question has a long history, as assaults have been made throughout the consecutive ages. Their goal has been to achieve a political, economic, or cultural aim. Attacks on person may lead to tremendous changes in the society, which is perfectly depicted by the killing of John Kennedy and Icchak Rabin. In the majority of cases, however, such an attack does not have significantly far-reaching consequences. In order to be effective, bodyguards must answer themselves the following questions – why do criminals attack? How do they attack? How may the assault look like? Therefore, it is highly advised to specify the motif, methods utilized, and consecutive stages of one and every attack on person. Taking into account motifs, one must bear in mind that all the assaults have their agenda. No attack is made voluntarily, without forethought. In the following sections, most common causes of the aforementioned activity are going to be enumerated:

Revolutionary or political ones – organized groups (frequently consisting of fanatics) attack others in order to force the society to change the existing system or overthrow the current government (in the attempt to choose a new one). Their victims are often the authorities ruling the country. The attackers, who follow their revolutionary or political agenda, try to win the sympathy of other representatives of the society. Long before the planned attack itself, they distribute leaflets blaming current rulers for the widespread injustice. According to their belief, the elimination of the elites in power would bring positive outcomes for the whole country. Such an action was performed in Armenia in 1999, where members of the government were shot dead during one of their meetings. The terrorists informed that their death would improve the national situation.

Economic – terrorists claim that their potential victim is responsible for the poor economic condition of the country, company, or a group of people. In the majority of cases, economic attacks take place in countries where there are extreme disproportions between the wealthy and the poor. It must be taken into consideration, however that it is not always the case, as the assessment of the attackers tend to be highly subjective. Quite frequently, the cause of the assault is the personal conviction that the unsatisfying economic condition of the terrorist is the result of actions performed by the victim. It pushes the attacker into thinking that killing him would aid the situation.

Personal – In this case, the wrongdoers are motivated to make an attack due to jealousy, vengeance or other personal causes. Those people in many cases have notable personality disorders, manifesting themselves especially in the inability to control their behavior. The aforementioned state also leads to the failure to distinguish reality from fiction. A perfect exemplification of the motif in question is shooting Zuzanna Leśniak and an artist – Andrzej Zaucha by Yves Goulais in 1991. The trigger there was jealousy.

Ideological – The terrorist is convinced that the victim chosen by him has been threatening the values and principles followed by the attacker. The said rules are often of significant importance for both the group he belongs to and for himself personally. Ideological attacks on a person may be religious or social in character. The first case is oriented towards killing a religious person in the attempt to make it impossible for him to achieve his goals. The second scenario relates to the willingness to eliminate the leader of a given social group. Quite frequently, the additional agenda is to make the organization the terrorist is a part of more memorable and popular in the media. Free publicity is an additional benefit then.

Psychological – The most commonplace group of attacks. Modern psychology claims that every person using firearms, stabbing others with a knife, or taking advantage of explosives has been struggling with mental problems. The motif is of negligible importance, as the attacker may justify his actions with revolutionary, economic, or personal goals, but the fact is that the driving force is the inability to perceive the world correctly. The assassination of Bill Clinton in 1994 illustrates the above bluntly. Francisco Martin Duran stated that he had attacked Clinton to destroy the mist connecting him to an alien entity. Apparently, Duran wanted to eliminate the mist in order to save the world. Attacks considered as crimes may be triggered by a myriad of factors. Among them,there are: - clashes between the representatives of a crime organization, willingness to demonstrate one’s power or threat the victim (attempt to force the latter to pay ransom or forget about debts), - desire to kill suspects that may endanger one’s business, - attempt to exert pressure on certain individuals or to threaten them for their professional achievements (relates to, inter alia, attorneys and tax collectors).

Attack methods to be considered by security guards. Close range attack. It may be performed by means of utilization of: - firearms, - melee weapon (knife, bayonet, dagger), - chemical substance (for example: toxic substance, such as hydrochloric acid). There are no exceptional skills needed to successfully attack a person, as almost everybody can use a knife or a dagger to a satisfactory extent. The same goes with firearms, the utilization of which is as difficult as driving a car. The aforementioned types of weapons can be transported to the place of the assault with ease. The characteristic feature of this attack type is the fact that the wrongdoer is situated maximally several centimeters away from the victim. The difficulty here is directly connected with the inability to improvise the act. It must be preceded by a prolonged observation of the subject, learning his or her customs, daily routine, places he or she visits, and the protection type he or she uses. Only after drawing proper conclusions from the examination, can the terrorist attack the victim. Marek Papała, a police commissioner, was killed due to a close range attack in 1998, Warsaw.

Long-range attack – in this case firearms are often used, especially rifles and carbines. It is not an uncommon situation to learn about an attacker who has used a sniper rifle fitted with professional laser and optical aiming devices. The distance between the wrongdoer and the subject of the attack is commonly higher than 5 meters. The former must also be much more skilled than a close range attacker, as he has to be capable of utilizing a professional gun in an effective manner. The death of John Kennedy in Dallas on 22nd November 1963 was the result of the attack form in question. Lee Harvey Oswald, who was a former marine soldier, shot his subject from a storage located several meters away from president’s cavalcade. To perform the act, he used Mannlicher-Carcano, cal. 6.5 mm rifle. The proficiency of the attacker was proven by the fact that he fired three shots and only one of them missed the target.

Attack with explosives – it requires notable skills, for the wrongdoers has to build a bomb before performing the attack. He must also know how and where to plant the explosive, how to situate the fuse inside and where to detonate it. Such a person also has to be familiar with the effects of explosion. Assault on Margaret Thatcher on 12th October 1984 showed how patient and clever can an attacker taking advantage of explosives be. Patrick Magee, a member of Irish Republican Army, moved into the hotel where the British prime minister was expected to stay 24 days before the said fact. Every single day, he worked meticulously destroying the wall and placing a 50-kilogram explosive inside the hole. The bomb was then fitted with a timer. It exploded when Miss Thatcher was considered to wash herself in the bathroom – the attacker was perfectly acquainted with her customs. She would have died if she had not received a document to be read. The explosive was detonated five floors above the bathroom located in the apartment of the „Iron Lady”. Six other people died as a result, but the suspect managed to avoid the clever assassination.

If you are looking to hire close protection in London do not wait and contact us immiedletly for professional bodyguard services in London.
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2020.09.16 15:01 NintendoSwitchMods Super Mario 3D All-Stars: Review MegaThread

General Information

Platform: Nintendo Switch
Release Date: 18-Sep-2020
No. of Players: up to 2 players
Genre(s): Platformer, Action
Publisher: Nintendo
Game file size: 4.8 GB
Official site:

Overview (from Nintendo eShop page)

Play three of Mario’s greatest 3D platform adventures—all in one package!
Super Mario™ 3D All-Stars will be available as a limited-run retail edition and a digital edition that is available for a limited time until the end of March 2021. Once the digital edition has been purchased on your Nintendo Account, it can be re-downloaded and played if deleted from your device.
Play three classic games at home or on the go—all in one package on the Nintendo Switch™ system! Jump into paintings in Super Mario 64™, clean up paint-like goop in Super Mario Sunshine™, and fly from planet to planet in Super Mario Galaxy™.
Run, jump, and dive with ease!
Make Mario move using the Nintendo Switch system’s Joy-Con™ controllers. You can also pass a Joy-Con controller to a friend to play the Super Mario Galaxy game in Co-Star Mode! Mario’s movements are as smooth as ever with HD resolution for each game, while still retaining the look and feel of the originals.
Listen to timeless Super Mario tunes
Listen to a total of 175 iconic tunes from all three games! Whether you want to get up and dance or take a minute to relax—this collection has music to fit your mood!
Discover (or rediscover) three of Mario’s most iconic 3D platform adventures, all in one package, available on the Nintendo Switch™ system. Experience Mario’s first foray into 3D platforming in the Super Mario 64™ game, originally released in 1996. Wall jump, backflip, and even fly as you explore paintings and collect Power Stars to save Princess Peach!
Soak up the sun in the Super Mario Sunshine™ game, originally released in 2002, and spray the goop away with your water-spouting pal, FLUDD! You’ll need to collect Shine Sprites and clear the picturesque Isle Delfino of pollution—just look out for Bowser Jr.
Defy gravity as you explore space in the Super Mario Galaxy™ game, originally released in 2007! Help Rosalina restore her ship by collecting Power Stars and save Princess Peach. Gently shake a Joy-Con™ controller to activate Mario’s Spin ability or pass a Joy-Con controller to a friend for some extra help in Co-Star Mode*.
Even when you aren’t playing, you can enjoy the sounds that these worlds (and galaxies!) are so famous for. With three games, modern upgrades, and music-player mode, this collection is filled with fun for both new players and 3D platforming Mario masters.
*If playing on Nintendo Switch Lite, detached Joy-Con controllers are required and sold separately. See for details.




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2020.09.14 21:55 Orthodox_anglo Aerial toll-houses

This will be an attempt to EXPLAIN this doctrine, because its opponents often try to strawman it into something that it is not.
What the doctrine teaches is that when you die, angels appear to take your soul to heaven, while demons appear trying to drag your soul to hell. The demons accuse you of your sins as part of this process, while the angels defend you.
This process generally occurs while the angels are trying to help you ascend to heaven, though very holy men ascend almost instantly, with few demons attacking them, while wicked men are simply immediately dragged to hell.
Please note that the demons are not “judging your souls in place of God” in the doctrine, as many people think. God is the only judge and Final Judge.
It’s very clear that the demons merely take the role of a prosecutor, accusing your soul of sins, while the angels are your defender. But in the end, God alone is the impartial judge who decides your salvation.
This is the core of the doctrine. Anything else is merely an attempt to use figurative language to explain this doctrine. There are not literally custom booths in the sky where you have to pay a literal toll to demons to pass.
Even the tale of Theodora’s journey through the tollhouses, a roughly 10th century text, which is the source from which much of the language of tolls and custom houses is most used, makes it very clear that it is using figurative language to describe what can only be understood spiritually.
Metropolitan Hierotheos of Nafpaktos, a very highly regarded theologian-bishop in Greece, writes about this far better than I can.
St. Anthony’s Greek Monastery here in America, under the guidance of Elder Ephraim, former abbot on Mount Athose, recently published a 1,100 page book on the subject This book is absolutely filled with citations on the tollhouses from Scripture, Church Fathers, liturgical services, contemporary saints, etc. It was endorsed by numerous bishops and prominent theologians in America including the heads of the Antiochan, Russian, and Romanian Archdioceses of America and the former head of the OCA. I HIGHLY encourage you to read it if you truly want to understand the massive amount of historical support the doctrine has in Orthodoxy.
I cannot hope to provide even 1% of the citations St. Anthony’s provided on this subject, but I’m going to provide at least a few of them below to show that the tollhouses are not some sort of "gnosticism,” but have instead been a prominent view since ancient times.
The idea that demons try to seize our souls when we die was present in the early Church. St. Justin Martyr wrote, around 160 AD, of this. source
But the very first clear depiction of the journey the soul takes through the air, and the role of the angels and demons in this process, can be found in the “Life of St. Anthony” by St. Athanasius the Great, written in the early 300s. source As you can see from this source, St. Anthony and St. Athanasius very clearly taught that the demons try to hinder our ascension into heaven when we die by accusing us of sins. But if we have confessed and repented, we have nothing to fear from them. But if we are sinful, the demons will successfully block our ascension, and drag us into hell.
Here is an example of this belief found in the writings of Saint John Chrysostom (From the late 300s or early 400s). As you can see, Saint John believed that angels would guide our souls to heaven, but the “dreadful powers” of the demons would also try to demand our souls. source
Likewise, St. Cyril of Alexandria (early 400s) believed that Satan is owed a “debt” by us if we are sinful (hence the “toll” metaphor), and we must pay it off in this life by repenting. source
There is an example of a monk who, even before he died, was confronted by the demons accusing him of his sins. This can be found in the Seventh Step of the Ladder of Divine Ascent an early 7th century text that is the most renowned monastic guide ever written in the history of the Church.
Here is an explanation of the doctrine found in the famous “Precious Pearl” traditionally thought a work of St. John of Damascus, though some scholars date it to the 11th century. Either way, it’s very old. source
There is a tale of a monk who died, saw the process of the soul ascending into heaven and being accused by the demons before being returned to life to tell the living of what happens to the soul after death. The Source is St. Bede’s Ecclesiastical History. source
Just as St. Bede, above, wrote of this, so too did St. Boniface, Apostle to the Germans, showing that this doctrine is not unique to the East, but also once existed in the Orthodox West. source
Another Western source on this is the “Life of St. Columba,” a famous 6th century Western Saint. source
Beyond the Church Fathers and lives of the saints, the doctrine of the tollhouses can be found in many of the liturgical services of the Church, such as one of the versions of the service of Compline. source
Probably the service that makes it most explicit is the “Prayer at the Departure of the Soul,” a monastic service performed immediately after a monk dies. source
Likewise, many contemporary saints firmly believed in the doctrine. Here are quotes from two famous 19th century Russian saints, including the famous quote from St. Theophan the Recluse “No matter how absurd the idea of toll-houses may seem to our ‘wise men’, they will not escape passing through them.”
Likewise, St. John of Shanghai and San Francisco, one of the most famous 20th century Orthodox saints, was an open and ardent proponent of the doctrine (he was the one who taught it to Fr. Seraphim Rose, in fact). source
St. Paisios, an incredibly famous late 20th century elder of Mt. Athos, also taught the doctrine. source
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2020.09.14 21:44 seewhyKai Arena Leaderboards: July - August 2020; Overlap of Ashes of Outland and Scholomance Academy

PSA - Read a post I made back in July. Yes, it is a mess. - Update: Europe Leaderboard for July-Aug was added as a separate table to the US and all Europe websites. Europe posts for prior seasons/months are still incorrect.

There seems to be a huge issue with how all the Europe based Hearthstone websites are being run. Towards the end of July, I noticed that a fair amount of "Top Hearthstone Players"/"Arena Leaderboards" posts (likely all news blogs posts though) were being retroactively changed.
Many of the Arena rankings on Europe pages have been replaced with those from Americas. I will do a deeper dive soon. I suspect Blizzard is consolidating website teams.
The Arena Leaderboards for the July through August 2020 season were published on September 14, 2020 10:00 PDT
The Blizzard Entertainment account made a post on the official forums at 10:00 PDT.
The official Hearthstone Latin America Twitter tweeted leaderboard news blog post at 11:50 PDT
The official Hearthstone Brasil Twitter tweeted leaderboard news blog post at 11:51 PDT.
Once again, the official US and global Hearthstone Twitter did not make any tweet regarding Arena.
The last Arena rankings to be published were for April-June 2020, the start of the new Hearthstone Year and the release of Ashes of Outland. That season spanned April 8 10:00 PDT to June 30 9:59:59 PDT. Ashes of Outland launched on April 7 around 10:00 PDT along with a new Arena Rotation which happened to be Standard sets.
The July - August season was from July 1 at 10:00 PDT to August 31 at 9:59:59 PDT. Scholomance Academy launched on August 6, 2020 around 10L00 PDT. This means this Arena season has 2 expansion cycles overlapping for the first time in a while. This season structure also spanned approximately 2 months, much like how seasons should have been during the Arena Rotation format. This is compared last Arena seasons's 2.5+ month season duration.
The rankings, as stated in the Americas news blog:
Below are the Arena leaderboards for July 1, 2020 – August 31, 2020. Arena rankings reflect players’ best 30 consecutive runs throughout a season. The players featured below have exhibited top-notch deckbuilding skills, in-the-moment decision making, and unyielding dedication to achieve a most noteworthy feat!
For an Arena run to be included in this season, its end time must have been between July 1 at 10:00 a.m. and August 31 at 9:59:59 a.m.

Arena leaderboards for July 1 10:00 PDT – August 31, 2020 9:59:59 PDT

Update: Sometime September 14 before 17:30 PDT, the Europe leaderboard was added as a separate table to the US website. As the GB/UK website and most other Europe websites are mirrors of the US site, those news blog posts also now include the Europe leaderboard.
This is the third time that Blizzard has published actual start/end dates with times - no timezones but I am pretty confident that everything below is accurate.
The dates/times on Europe are the exact same as the dates/times on Americas. The Europe dates/times are almost certainly Pacific Daylight Time PDT. The Europe region server (in-game) is based on Central European Summer Time, CEST which is 9 hours ahead of PDT. Note that the "main" Europe site is the UK website which is 1 hour behind CEST.
Asia dates/times are listed as between July 2 at 2:00 AM and September 1 at 1:59:59 AM. The Asia region server is based on Korea Standard Time, KST which is 16 hours ahead of PDT.
For those curious, here are the threads and spreadsheets for prior seasons:
Any questions, comments, etc just leave as a reply.
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2020.09.11 14:25 AlsoIHaveAGroupon What are your favorite single episodes from anthology series that are NOT from Black Mirror or the original Twilight Zone?

The anthology series (where each episode is its own thing, no recurring characters or storylines from one episode to the next) was a staple of the golden age of television, but it had gone dormant in the 2000s until Black Mirror appeared on Netflix in the US and blew up. Seemingly all the streaming services then rushed to get their own out, and the format has enjoyed a revival in the past five years. They're always a little hit-or-miss, that's the nature of the format, but for me when they do hit, they're extremely memorable.
No original Twilight Zone or Black Mirror because we'd all deservedly upvote our favorites and nothing new or interesting would end up on the list, although if you haven't seen those, they are worth checking out. I thought about making Inside No. 9 (which Americans can find split between Hulu and HBOMax) and Love, Death + Robots (Netflix) off-limits too. I skipped them in my favorites, or I could have listed 15 from just those two shows. But I don't think the former is well known outside of the UK, and I don't think the latter has gotten much attention after a brief bit of excitement when it first came out. So go nuts with those if you want.
I'd love favorites that are even more unfamiliar though. So what are the episodes you love from Are You Afraid of the Dark?, Outer Limits, Amazing Stories, Goosebumps, Tales from the Crypts, Alfred Hitchcock Presents, any of the Black Mirror clones (I think I've watched all of them), if you're really old a student of TV history, The Philco/Goodyear Television Playhouse, or any other anthology series?
And if it's something that might still be around (which it probably is... youtube even has kinescopes of Philco/Goodyear Television Playhouse episodes!), try not to get too spoilery in describing it.
My favorites:
Room 104 (2017, HBO) - Mr. Mulvahill - Room 104 is nowhere near the best show on TV, but I find it to be one of the most interesting, because you have zero idea what to expect when an episode starts. The only rule is that the episode takes place in the same hotel room. You could tune in to see comedy, drama, scifi, horror, musical, documentary, even some weird interpretive dance thing. You might get an emotional story of an addict confronting their own mortality, or you might get a Russian-accented Michael Shannon picking a really weird way to impress a blind date.
Mr. Mulvahill stars Rainn Wilson as a guy who invites his childhood school band director to room 104 to discuss the impact the director had on his life. It doesn't sound like much, but it builds up to one of the most tense moments I can remember in television, and Rainn Wilson carries it completely with his performance.
The Twilight Zone (1985, CBS) - Dealer's Choice - I don't think the first revival of The Twilight Zone is particularly beloved. but it sure had a lot of talent involved. The Grateful Dead did the theme song, George R.R. Martin and J. MIchael Straczynski wrote episodes, Wes Craven directed several episodes, and Bruce Willis even starred in one.
Dealer's Choice is a simple story, with a little tension, and a killer cast made it memorable to me as a kid watching July 4th weekend Twilight Zone marathons. Morgan Freeman, M. Emmet Walsh (Rogert Ebert had a rule that no movie with him or Harry Dean Stanton can be entirely bad), Garrett Morris, and the guy who played Jerry's father on Seinfeld have a regular poker game, and Dan Hedeya is a new player who's filling in for a regular out sick. But the new guy keeps winning and the regulars start to get suspicious. Going back and watching it on youtube, the soundtrack is dated as hell and it's more than a little corny, but I got a good nostalgia kick from it so I'm leaving it on here.
Weird City (2019, YouTube Premium) - Chonathan & Mulia & Barsley & Phephanie - The first episode is free, and ok (there's a 20 second joke at the tail end that I find hilarious though), but YouTube Premium never really took off as far as I can tell, so I don't think anyone watched it. The big selling point was "co-created by Jordan Peele" but he co-wrote a single episode, and the main creative force behind the series was a Key & Peele writer named Charlie Sanders. The series took place in a futuristic city with a giant dividing wall to separate the haves from the have-nots. Utopia on one side, dystopia on the other.
In this episode, Gillian Jacobs (Community), Hannah Simone (New Girl), Malcolm Barrett (Timeless, Better Off Ted), and Steven Yeun (The Walking Dead) are four people who live on the "have" side of the wall, and while having brunch and engaging in what is basically competitive virtue signaling, they decide to do something for the poor souls on the other side of the wall. But without really knowing a thing about the plight of the poor souls on the other side of the wall, their attempt turns farcical. Steven Yeun's performance alone, as a guy who really wants you to try some of his organic cantaloupe, is worth 30 minutes of your time.
The Twilight Zone (2019, CBS All Access) - Try, Try - Jordan Peele re-launched the classic series, and attempting to fill Rod Serling's shoes left a lot of people disappointed. There are probably more misses than hits, but they've connected a few times.
Pitch/Game Night's Kylie Bunbury has a chance meeting with Topher Grace (who must like these anthology shows because he's been in this, a Black Mirror, and a LD+R just in the past two years), and their immediate attraction makes it feel like fate. Or as coincidences pile up, is it more than fate? This ends up being a different perspective on a common scifi/fantasy plot device that makes you reconsider some classic stories.
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2020.09.09 14:17 WinsLive Bingo ☢️

Bingo ☢️
Ancestor of the modern bingo is considered the Italian Lo Giuoco del Lotto D’Italia. The first mention of it dates as far as 1530💤
The players received cards on which they marked the dropped out numbers with beans and when the winner collected the required number of points, he shouted: "Bean go!"💥 This is where the name of the game "bingo" came from.
Businessman Edwin Lowe decided to create his own game, based on the old rules, but changing them slightly. He ordered 6,000 unique cards from the mathematics professor and began selling the game in New York. As a result, bingo became very popular among Americans and spread to other countries.
It is often played in churches⛪️, and the funds raised are sent to charity.
"Bingo" has similarities with the Russian lotto, only the cards are smaller + letters are added, but the principles of the game and the rules are almost the same.

There are several types of "bingo", the main difference is in the rules:

1️⃣➖ One is a 5x5 grid meant for 75-ball Bingo, which is largely played in the U.S.
2️⃣➖ The other uses 90-ball Bingo (UK version)
It is similar to the Russian lotto, the only difference is that in the Russian game they use a bag with barrels, and in bingo 90 - a lottery drum with balls. According to the rules of the bingo-90 numbers from 1 to 90 are used.
Playing bingo is equally interesting with friends, in a hobby club or in an online game. Victory depends on attention and luck😉
We are in telegram:
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2020.09.08 23:18 clemaneuverers The book, "The Protocols Of The Learned Elders Of Zion", first published circa 120 years ago, is said to be a "fabricated antisemitic text", a "hoax", a "forgery". Recent research I have done leads me to believe that this is not the case and it is actually a genuine document. Long post!

Russian edition 1912
American english edition, 1, 2
It was declared a forgery which means there was an original document somewhere.
–Eustace Mullins
First, a link to the wikipedia page for the protocols so those interested can see how much of what you're about to read is omitted from there:
The book in which they [the Protocols] are embodied was first published in the year 1897 by Philip Stepanov for private circulation among his intimate friends. The first time Professor Sergius A. Nilus published them was in 1901 in a book called The Great Within the Small and reprinted in 1905. A copy of this is in the British Museum bearing the date of its reception, August 10, 1906.
All copies that were known to exist in Russia were destroyed in the Kerensky regime, and under his successors the possession of a copy by anyone in Soviet land was a crime sufficient to ensure the owner's of being shot on sight. (source):
The best evidence of the genuineness of the Protocols is that in March, 1917 the Bolshevik Revolution took place in Russia and one of the first things done upon the Jewish Bolsheviks taking power was to destroy all copies of Professor Sergius A. Nilus’ book, The Great Within the Small, by. That book, which was first published in Tsarskoe-Tselc (Russia) in 1901, contained The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion. All copies of the Protocols that were known to exist in Russia were destroyed during the Kerensky regime. The law followed by Kerensky’s communist successors to power was that the possession of a copy of the Protocols by anyone in the Soviet Union was a crime punishable by being shot on sight
...Professor Nilus was arrested by the Cheka (Russian Secret Police) in Kiev. He was imprisoned and tortured. The Jewish president of the court, told Professor Nilus that the brutal treatment he received was as retribution for "having done them incalculable harm in publishing the Protocols."
[2011] Solving the Mystery of Babylon the Great by Edward Hendrie
The attack on the Protocols in the 1920’s proved above all else the truth of their contention; it showed that the standing organization for suppressing public discussion of the conspiracy had been perfected in the intervening 120 years . Probably so much money and energy were never before in history expended on the effort to suppress a single document.
[1956] The Controversy of Zion by Douglas Reeds
In 1865 the Jewish Rabbi RZEICHORN, made a speech in Prague. The speech was published 11 years later by Sir John Radcliff, who was assassinated shortly after its publication and it became almost extinct for years. Here are a few passages;
"With Gold one can buy the most upright consiences, with Gold one can fix the value of every stock, the price of every merchandise, one can loan it to states that afterwards one holds at ones mercy.
"Already the principle banks, the stock exchanges throughout the world, the loans to all governments are in our hands. "The other great power is the press. By ceaselessly repeating certain ideas, the press in the end makes them considered as truths. The Theatre renders similair services, every where theatre and press follow our directives. By an indefatigable campaign in favour of the democratic form of government, we will divide the Gentiles amongst themselves in political parties, we shall thus destroy the unity of their nations, we will sow the seeds of discord. Powerless they will have to accept the laws of our bank, always united, always devoted to our cause.
"The possession of land has always procured influence and power. In the name of social justice and equality, we will divide the great properties; we will give small fragments to the peasents who desire it with all their heart, But who will soon be indebted to us by the very exploitation of these properties. Our capital will enable us to be the real masters.
"Let us use all force to replace the circulation of gold by that of paper; our banks will absorb the gold, and we shall decide what then what value the paper money will have, this will make us masters of every mans existence. "We will promise to the workers salaries they have never dared to dream of, but we will also heighten the price of all necessities, so much so that our profits will be even greater.
"By our jokes and attacks we will render their priests ridiculous and eventually odius, their religion as ridiculous, as odius as their priests. We shall become the masters of their souls. But above all, let us get control of education, of the schools. By them we will spread the ideas that are useful to us, and we will mold the childrens brains as we wish".
David Icke writes, in his book "The Trigger" (2019), of the above quotes from Rabbi Rzeichhorn:
Make of that what you will because I can't prove authenticity, but
(a) you have the right to be aware of this information and
(b) there can be no doubt as we observe the world that the plans laid out in the Protocols, by the Sabbatian-Frankist Illuminati and attributed to Rabbi Reichhorn have happened or are happening.
This is so patently obvious that agents of Sabbatian-Frankism, some knowingly, some dupes, have employed the usual fall-back, fit-every-situation technique of condemning as 'antiSemitic' anyone who points this out and asks any questions about the plan described in the Protocols. I am not saying this is all a 'Jewish plot' - I am saying it's a plot by the Sabbatian-Frankist Death Cult that hates and despises Jews and Judaism as it hates and despises everyone else, and that this cult is part of the wider global satanic cult that infests every culture, race and country. On Sabbatian-Frankism I am at one with rabbis such as Marvin S. Antelman and many others.
The Protocols, whatever their origin, have been dismissed as a forgery since the articles by Irish writer Philip Graves in the London Times in 1921 which were also carried by The New York Times. Graves claimed the Protocols resembled a satire on Napoleon III by French lawyer Maurice Joly called Dialogue aux enfers entre Machiavel et Montesquieu ('Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu') published in 1864. This is where the story usually ends. The Protocols were proved to be a forgery in The Times in 1921 - move along now, nothing to see here.
There is, however, other background to consider. Phillip Graves was a captain in British Army Intelligence who worked with 'Lawrence of Arabia', another British agent, who manipulated Palestinian Arabs to drive out the Ottoman Empire and open the way for the new Israel to hijack their land. Graves' uncle was Sir Robert Windham Graves, a British Consul in Turkey and financial advisor to the Turkish government who worked for Civil Intelligence in Cairo, Egypt.
The writer of the articles in The Times was connected to British Army Intelligence and there's more. Peter Grose, a writer with the Council on Foreign Relations, revealed in his 1994 book, Gentleman Spy: The Life of Allen Dulles, that Philip Graves' 'source' for the articles was a 'Russian emigre' provided to him by ... Allen Dulles. What a coincidence. Dulles, a Council on Foreign Relations stalwart, later CIA chief and instigator of the satanic MKUltra mind control horror, 'discovered' his man while stationed at the US Embassy in post-Ottoman Turkey.
The end of the Ottoman Muslim empire (brought about by World War I) was crucial to the establishment of Israel because it included Palestine. Peter Grose said The Times extended a 'loan' to the 'emigre' on the understanding that it did not have to be paid back. An Internet commentator said of the Allen Dulles 'scoop':
This was quite an accomplishment for a young American embassy employee, to both prove the major anti-Jewish plan for world domination was a forgery as well as unilaterally keeping Lenin out of the United States so he could be transported to Russia to begin the communist revolution. Strange coincidences like this seemed to follow both Dulles brothers during their long careers in 'public service' - or should we say 'serving the Anglo-American interests headquartered in the City of London'.
Dulles and dodgy are interchangeable words and Rabbi Antelman said that the Council on Foreign Relations is America's most powerful pro-Israel lobby group and controlled by Sabbatian-Frankists.
The Times articles that trashed the Protocols were written by a British Army Intelligence operative using an unnamed source provided by the infamous liar and manipulator Allen Dulles and the source secured a loan from the newspaper he would not have to repay. Oh, nothing to question here, then. Now shut up you 'anti-Semite'!
Colin Holmes, a lecturer in economic history at the UK's Sheffield University, claimed to have identified the Dulles emigre as Michael Raslovleff, a 'self-identified anti-Semite', who gave the information to Graves because he didn't want to 'give a weapon of any kind to the Jews, whose friend I have never been'. Surely having a document circulating that was alleged to be proof of a 'Jewish plot' is what an 'anti-Semite' would want rather than seeking to trash its legitimacy? Anyway, that's some background and people will have to decide what they think.
–David Icke, "The Trigger", 2019
After reading the above from Icke I had renewed interest in the Protocols and started to do a little research.
Wikipedia is "certain" that the Protocols are a "forgery"; here is what they have to say:
Source material for the forgery consisted jointly of "Dialogue aux enfers entre Machiavel et Montesquieu" (Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu), an 1864 political satire by Maurice Joly; and a chapter from Biarritz, an 1868 novel by the antisemitic German novelist Hermann Goedsche, which had been translated into Russian in 1872.
Interestingly, however, when one looks up Herman Goedsche and his book Biarritz (again, on wikipedia), one reads:
In his 1868 book Biarritz, Goedsche plagiarized a book by the French satirist Maurice Joly, The Dialogue in Hell Between Machiavelli and Montesquieu
Also "Dialogue aux enfers..." itself appears to be somewhat plagiarized:
Umberto Eco considered that Dialogue in Hell was itself plagiarised in part from a novel by Eugène Sue, Les Mystères du Peuple.
Interesting, what is going on here? But let's continue. Wikipedia says:
Identifiable phrases from Joly constitute 4% of the first half of the first edition, and 12% of the second half
[Australian researcher Peter Myer comments on the above:]
[“Cohn's (whose research the wikipedia entry makes use of) arithmetic is incorrect. The word-count of the parallel passages from the Protocols as listed by Bernstein, is 4,361, while the word-count of the Protocols is 26, 496. That is, the parallel passages comprise 16.45% of the Protocols; this is substantial, but still less than one sixth of the total.”]
So... where does the rest of the book come from?
Back to Wikipedia:
A major source for the Protocols was Der Judenstaat (1896) by Theodor Herzl, which was referred to as Zionist Protocols in its initial French and Russian editions. Paradoxically, early Russian editions of the Protocols assert that they did not come from a Zionist organization.
Stepanov is said to have published the Protocols first around the same time as Herzl's book was published. That's awfully tight timing.
The wikipedia page makes no mention of the original Philip Stepanov publication, or Stepanov himself (big omission), but the source authors the page quotes from do. Interesting that.
Time to look into this Stepanov character.
No Wikipedia page that I can find.
The first thing I found was this:
He said that the "Protocols" was not Jewish-Masonic but a Zionist document secretly read at the Zionist Congress in Basle in 1897. (This especially is a foolish notion since an affidavit written by Philip Stepanov, the first publisher, proves that the "Protocols" was first brought to Russia two years before that Congress took place.) source
Two years before!? How can a book that heavily relies on plagiarizing from a book published in 1897, be published two years before in 1895?
I went hunting for this affidavit, and found quotes from it in another document.
A bombshell document...
...that I shall now quote from extensively (source at the end):
According to Philip Stepanov, formerly Procurator of the Moscow Synod, Chamberlain, and Privy Councillor, a copy of The Protocols was given to him in 1895 by his neighbour Maj. Alexis Sukhotin, Marshall of the town of Orel, who had been given his copy by Mlle Justine Glinka. (Sworn statement of Philip Stepanov, dated 17 April 1927).
Glinka, the daughter of a Russian general, had been in France since 1884, working for Gen. Orgevskii, secretary to the Minister of the Interior. Joseph Schorst, a Jewish member of the Mizraim Masonic Lodge in Paris, was in her employ, and offered to obtain a document which became known as The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion. Schorst later fled to Egypt where he was murdered. Returning to Russia, she gave a copy of the Protocols to Alexis Sukhotin, who showed it to Stepanov and Professor Sergius A. Nilus.
In wishing to refute the later allegation that The Protocols were formulated at the 1897 First Zionist Congress in Basle, Herman Bernstein, an early debunker of The Protocols, cites Stepanov’s sworn statement, the handwritten original being reproduced in Mrs Leslie Fry’s book Waters Flowing Eastward. Bernstein states:
"…This account of the history of the Protocols in Russia is accompanied by a facsimile affidavit made in 1927 by Philip Stepanov, one of the two friends to whom Sukhotin first showed the Protocols in Russia. Stepanov's telltale affidavit, translated from the Russian, reads as follows:
"In 1895 my neighboring estate owner in the province of Tula, retired Major Alexey Nikolayevitch Sukhotin, gave me a handwritten copy of the 'Protocols of the Wise Men of Zion.' He told me that a lady of his acquaintance (he did not mention her name), residing in Paris, had found them at the home of a friend of hers (probably of Jewish origin), and before leaving Paris, had translated them secretly, without his knowledge, and had brought one copy of that translation to Russia, and had given that copy to him, Sukhotin.
"At first I mimeographed one hundred copies of the Protocols, but that edition was difficult to read, and I resolved to have it printed somewhere, without mentioning the time, the city and the printer; I was helped in this by Arcady Ippolitovitch Kelepkovsky, who at that time was Privy Councillor with Grand Duke Sergey Alexandrovitch; he had these documents printed at the Provincial Printing Press; that was in 1897. S. A. Nilus reprinted these Protocols in full in his book, with his own commentaries.
"Philip Petrovitch Stepanov, former Procurator of the Moscow Synod Office; Chamberlain, Privy Councillor, and at the time of the publication of that edition, Chief of the district railway service of the Moscow-Kursk railway (in Orel).
"This is the signature of a member of the colony of Russian refugees at Stary and Novy Futog. "Witnessed by me, Stary Futog, April 17, 1927. "Chairman of the Administration of the Colony, "Prince Vladimir Galitzin." (Seal)
–(Herman Bernstein, The Truth About "The Protocols Of Zion": A Complete Exposure, 1971, pp. 37-40. Bernstein quotes from L. Fry's book Waters Flowing Eastward).
...there are internal indications that The Protocols date well prior to 1900-01. For e.g. a reference to "the Panama scandal" of 1888 which caused a furore in France during the 1890s. Also had The Protocols been contrived by Golovinsky ca. 1900 (see source below for more info) or at least sometime after 1896, it seems reasonable that anti-Semites would draw widely on references to Zionism, the First Zionist Congress taking place in 1897. However, there are no references to Zionism at all in The Protocols. The initial opinion of Nilus et al that The Protocols were not derived from the Zionist movement, but from a Jewish faction of Masonry, were correct.
It is particularly interesting that Cohn [historian Norman Cohn, quoted extensively in the wikipdeia entry] bases his refutation of The Protocols on the assertion that they are plagiarised from Maurice Joly’s Dialogues in Hell, and refutes the notion that The Protocols could emanate from the Alliance Israelite Universelle, yet fails to make any mention of the close association that existed between the Alliance’s Adolphe Cremieux and Joly. After all, most of the publicists for The Protocols seem to have considered the association, but Cohn, eager to nick-pick on various details, neglects refuting these most damning connections. Both Cohn and Bernstein were fully aware of Joly’s associations with Cremieux and with Masonry as stated in Mrs Fry’s book Waters Flowing Eastward (both mention the book) yet they say nothing of these associations. We must therefore assume that Mrs Fry’s assertions regarding Joly, Masonry and Cremieux are correct.
Whilst we shall shortly deal with the alleged parallels between passages of The Protocols and Joly’s work, we shall first deal with background of Joly that Cohn, Bernstein et al conspicuously avoid. Joly (1831-1878) had a family background in Masonry from his maternal grandfather. Studying law, he secured a post in he Ministry of the Interior. In 1860 he founded a newspaper, Le Palais, for lawyers and attorneys. The principal stockholders were: Jules Favre (Mason who served in the Gambetta Government, the so-called Government of National Defence, which arose after the fall of Napoleon III in 1870), Desmaret (Mason), Leblond (Mason), Adolphe Cremieux, Mason and head of the Alliance Israelite Universelle, a member of the Gambetta Government, of whom more later), Emmanuel Arago, Mason, serving with Gambetta), and Antoine Berryer (apparently the only non-Mason around Joly).
Joly’s politics were self-described as "socialist", with the need to accept "extreme means". With Cremieux he shared a hatred of Napoleon III. However what The Times, as well as subsequent critics of The Protocols do not mention is that Joly’s polemic against Napoleon III was itself predated by a similar work entitled Machiavelli, Montesquieu, Rousseau, which was written by Jacob Venedey and published in Berlin in 1850. Therefore, Joly was continuing a certain polemical line of thought rather than inventing it. If there are similarities between Joly and The Protocols, then there are also similarities with Venedey. All three for instance refer to the Hindu God Vishnu in parallel passages.
According to the expert testimony of Col. Fleischhauer at the 1935 Berne Trial, Joly was himself Jewish, his name having been originally Joseph Levy, Joly being concocted out of four letters of his true name. This testimony was said to have caused a sensation in the courtroom. When the plaintiffs produced a "baptismal certificate" to prove that Joly was not Jewish, it was dated December 1829, i.e. several years prior to Joly’s real date of birth according to his own account.
Since Venedey, a communist, takes a position antithetical to Joly, his champion being Machiavelli, we can see here a dialectical process in operation, that was brought to revolutionary perfection by Marx and the communists, and has arguably been used by the ‘Elders of Zion’. The dialectical strategy consists of promoting tension in society to achieve change. This includes the promotion of ideas and movements seemingly antithetical to ones own aims in the short term to advance long-range aims. Hence, the seemingly contradictory and self-destructive phenomenon of international bankers financing supposedly anti-capitalist revolutions to bring down traditional societies, as we shall see in due course. That the dialectical process is operative here can be inferred from the fact that Cremieux was the mentor of both Venedey and Joly. Hence the seemingly contradictory, antithetical positions of Venedey and Joly represent two sides of the programme of the ‘Learned Elder’.
Venedey (1805-1871) was a Jew who sought refuge in France, due to his revolutionary activities in Germany. He was removed from Paris by the police, but was able to return due to the intercession of Arago (whom we have seen was to become a stockholder in Joly’s newspaper) and Francois Mignet, both friends of Cremieux. Venedey was closely associated with Karl Marx and helped establish the Communist International, and was also active in the Masonic order Bauhutte.
Masonry, Illuminati & The Rite of Mizraim
Mrs Fry and other authorities on The Protocols have claimed that the documents were taken from a Lodge of the Masonic Rite of Mizraim, by one of its Jewish members, Joseph Schorst. Whilst this suggestion is of course rubbished out of hand by Cohn et al, once again the Protocols deniers remain strangely mute as to the role of both Cremieux and Joly in Mizraim.
Cremieux was a prominent member of Mizraim as well as Scottish Rite Masonry and the Grand Orient. Cremieux was a member of the Supreme Council of the Order of Mizraim. He also became Grand Master of the unified Grand Orient and Scottish Rite Masonry.
The Aegpytian Rite of Mizraim or Misraim was founded in Milan, Italy in 1805 and transferred to France in 1814. Mizraim is Hebrew for Egypt. Its origins reach back to the cabalistic magician Cagliostro, who was an initiate of the Illuminati. But the Misraim-Rite was (and still is) not accepted by Regular Freemasonry.
In 1862, another irregular rite, the Memphis Rite was introduced to the USA. On 4th June 1872, John Yarker introduced the Memphis-Rite to England. Under his jurisdiction, Memphis and Misraim came together. This unification was called The Antient and Primitive Rite of Memphis and Misraim, or Memphis-Misraim.
In 1902 Theodor Reuss, a German espionage agent, gained sanction from Yarker to install the Scottish Rite (33 degrees) and the "irregular" MM-Rites (90 and 97 degrees) in Germany. In 1917, Reuss introduced some of the Scottish Rite and MM degrees into the Ordo Templi Orientis, an occult society founded in 1906. This OTO was to be taken over by the infamous "Black Magician" and self-declared "Great Beast 666", Aleister Crowley. Crowley, a cabalist, was to write his own manifesto for a "New World Order", which he called The Book of the Law, expounding a Nietzschean doctrine of "Force and Fire" on the ruins of Christianity. Crowley saw his movement as being a continuation of the Illuminati and counted its founder Adam Weishaupt among a long list of "saints". A major difference of course is that Crowley did not have the resources and influence of Organised Jewry.
In 1870 the Rite of Mizraim was established in England under the authority of Cremieux. Bro. Little, one of those at the founding conference of Mizraim in London, on 28 December, stated:
"…Brother Cremieux, however, as a proof of his willingness to assist, sent to the meeting his diploma as a member of the French Grand College of Rites, and this diploma was placed upon the table during the proceedings, and was examined by several out of the hundred Masons present. It was also understood that Brother C.'s diploma invested him with the power to found rites or orders recognized by the Grand Orient of France (the Rite of Misraim being one)…"
The Freemason reported that a
"Supreme Council General of the 90°, had been regularly formed here 'under the authority conveyed in a diploma granted to the Illustrious Brother Cremieux, 33° of the Rite Ecossais, and a member of the Grand College of Rites in France.'"
Bernstein and Cohn rubbish any such notion of Masonic involvement in any conspiracy, including involvement in the French Revolution. This repudiation is necessary on their part, since Masonry plays a major factor in the conspiracy expounded in The Protocols. We shall consider the role of Masonry and the Illuminati in due course. Suffice it here to cite several eminent sources that can hardly be said to be anti-Semitic. Benjamin Disraeli, the Jewish Victorian era Prime Minister of Britain and intimate of the Rothschild banking dynasty, one of the mainstays of Jewish world influence, states in terms themselves reminiscent of The Protocols:
"When the secret societies, in February 1848, surprised Europe, they were themselves surprised by the unexpected opportunity, and so little capable were they of seizing the occasion, that had it not been for the Jews, who of late years unfortunately have been connecting themselves with these unhallowed associations, imbecile as were the governments the uncalled-for outbreak would not have ravaged Europe. But the fiery energy and the teeming resources of the children of Israel maintained for a long time the unnecessary and useless struggle. If the reader throws over the provisional governments of Germany, and Italy, and even of France, formed at that period, he will recognise everywhere the Jewish element. Even the insurrection, and defence, and administration of Venice, which, from the resource of statesmanlike moderation displayed, commanded almost the respect and sympathy of Europe, were accomplished by a Jew - Manini, who by the bye is a Jew who professes the whole of the Jewish religion, and believes in Calvary as well as Sinai, 'a converted Jew', as the Lombards styled him, quite forgetting, in the confusion of their ideas, that it is the Lombards who are the converts - not Manini."
Secondly we have a remarkable statement from Leon Trotsky, the Jewish revolutionary who became commander of the Red Army and with Lenin the most powerful man in the USSR:
"It was during that period that I became interested in freemasonry. ... In the eighteenth century freemasonry became expressive of a militant policy of enlightenment, as in the case of the Illuminati, who were the forerunners of the revolution; on its left it culminated in the Carbonari. Freemasons counted among their members both Louis XVI and the Dr. Guillotin who invented the guillotine. In southern Germany freemasonry assumed an openly revolutionary character, whereas at the court of Catherine the Great it was a masquerade reflecting the aristocratic and bureaucratic hierarchy. A freemason Novikov was exiled to Siberia by a freemason Empress. . I discontinued my work on freemasonry to take up the study of Marxian economics. ... The work on freemasonry acted as a sort of test for these hypotheses. ... I think this influenced the whole course of my intellectual development.".
Note that Trotsky not only refers to Masonry as a major factor in revolutionary ferment, but how it had also infiltrated the hierarchy of the old order it was about to overthrow, and that both the Illuminati and the Italian Carbonari were involved. Yet Bernstein and Cohn dismiss such sentiments when expressed by Robison et al as "fantasy". Bernstein also opines that the Illuminati were a "rival" of Masonry and did not survive its banning by the Elector of Bavaria. As we shall see, this opinion is naïve at best.
Thirdly, Bernard Lazare traces the Jewish influence on Masonry and the Illuminati, as follows:
"…It is true of course that there were Jews connected with Freemasonry from its birth, students of the Kabbala, as shown by certain rites which survive. It is very probable too that in the years preceding the French Revolution, they entered in greater numbers than ever, into the councils of the secret societies, becoming, indeed, themselves the founders of secret associations. There were Jews in the circle around Weishaupt, and a Jew of Portuguese origin, Martinez de Pasquales, established numerous groups of Illuminati in France and gathered a large number of disciples, who he instructed in the doctrines of reintegration. The lodges which Martinez founded were mystic in character, whereas the other orders of Freemasonry were, on the whole, rationalistic in their teachings. This might almost lead one to say that the secret societies gave expression in a way to the two fold nature of the Jew, on the one hand a rigid rationalism, on the other that pantheism which… often ended in a sort of Cabalistic theurgy. There would be little difficulty in showing how these two tendencies worked in harmony; how Cazotte, Cagliostro, Martinez [de Pasquales]… were practically in alliance with the Encyclopaedists and the Jacobins, succeeded in arriving at the same end, the undermining, namely, of Christianity."
The Protocols (if obtained in 1884) refer to the Panama Canal scandal years before the scandal had become public knowledge (in 1892). Therefore whoever wrote The Protocols must have had inside knowledge of high powered financial manipulation.
We have already noted that The Protocols did not originate with the Zionist movement. This was the original opinion of Nilus and others, although subsequently modified after Zionism became an influential movement among the Jews. In fact, the majority of the most prominent figures of World Jewry were opposed to Zionism, and some Orthodox Jews are still antagonistic on the basis that Israel was not to be recreated until after the advent of the King-Messiah.
The principal allegation levelled at the supposed forgers of The Protocols is that the purpose is to foment "anti-Semitism". However, the following is a remarkable passage from The Protocols in which it is said that "anti-Semitism" serves the purposes of the "Elders of Zion" in keeping the Jewish masses herded under their leadership.
As one might say today, this seems to be something of a "protection racket". The Jewish masses are being milked of millions of dollars every year to fill the coffers not only of Israel but of numerous "Jewish defence" organisations such as the Anti-Defamation League, which continually feed the Jews the line that a pogrom or a new "Holocaust" is just around the corner if Jews don’t keep donating. Here is what The Protocols say about "anti-Semitism". It is surely a strange passage if the authors are anti-Semites wishing to incite pogroms:
"Nowadays if any States raise a protest against us it is only pro forma at our discretion, and by our direction, for their antiSemitism is indispensable to us for the management of our lesser brethren. I will not enter into further explanations, for this matter has formed the subject of repeated discussions amongst us." (Prot. IX)
There is much, much more to this story; what I have quoted above are abridged excerpts.
The full document is a fascinating read and you can read it here:
The PROTOCOLS of ZION In Context By Dr. K. R. Bolton (PDF)
"But you yourselves perfectly well know that to produce the possibility of the expression of such wishes by all the nations it is indispensable to trouble in all countries the people's relations with their governments so as to utterly exhaust humanity with dissension, hatred, struggle, envy and even by the use of torture, by starvation, BY THE INOCULATION OF DISEASES, by want, so that the goyim see no other issue than to take refuge in our complete sovereignty in money and in all else. But if we give the nations of the world a breathing space the moment we long for is hardly likely ever to arrive."
Protocol 10
The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion
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2020.09.08 15:31 readingrachelx Housewife highlights/Daily shit talk - September 8th, 2020

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2020.09.07 19:04 Cryptolexicon "Empirically, we know that Women and Men are Violent at Roughly Equal Rates.": Debunking the Female Supremacist Myth of the Non-Violent Female.

Summary: Female Physical Violence against Men is an underreported reality.
Data, Figures, Studies related to Female Physical Violence are systematically supressed by Female Supremacy Interest Groups, Researchers, Journalists. The view that men are responsible for the vast majority of non self-defensive physical violence (we are looking at you /Nametheproblem 👀👀) is grossly uninformed and ultimately dangerous.
Those who cling to the idea that males are responsible for most non self-defensive physical violence (/Nametheproblem 👀👀) have been radicalized - these people do not like Logic (how easily they jump from the particular to the universal), Empirical Data (they ignore Empirical data that challenges their bias and threatens their World View) and have a tendancy to selectively use the media to reinforce beliefs they cannot let go of.
The Female Supremacist (not the feminist, there is a difference... like Jordan Peterson said: definitions matter) holds onto a Core of unfalsifiable beliefs, beliefs which cannot be proven wrong (Men are Evil, All Males are rapists, All males are potential pedophiles, etc). The Female Supremacist avoids Empirical Data which would force her to reevaluate the validity of her belief system.
Let us explore Female Violence together, an idea we collectively struggle with.
"SAPERE AUDE" - Have the courage to use Your own Reason. Let go of preconceived ideas about violence and dive in the Data.
Ongoing thread.

"Feminists had, for the most part, been reluctant to discuss violent women, for the very real fear it would undermine the hard-won battles secured by the campaigning and activism resulting from women’s victimisation." (Emma Milne, Jackie Turton).

"In many ways, we turned a blind eye to many women’s use of violence, their drug use and alcoholism, and their often harsh and violent treatment of their own children." (Ellen Pence, Duluth Model Creator)

"This discourse can be politically subversive in that it requires overcoming fixed gender stereotypes with a redefinition of ordinary femininity as aggressive and potentially harmful." (Daniella Bandelli, Female Violence in Italy: an emerging discourse of Heterosexuality).

"Over 200 studies, mostly in Euro-American nations, found about the same percent of women as men physically assault marital and dating partners. Tabulation of 24 published studies in male-dominant (MD) nations and the results for university students in 32 nations found that, regardless of the level of MD, about the same percent of women as men assaulted a partner. Moreover, the more MD the nation, higher rate of assaulting a partner by women (r=.41). " (M. Strauss, Assaults By Women On Male Partners In Male Dominant Nations: Preliminary Tests Of An Explanatory Theory).

Minor and Severe DV, Males and Females, 32 countries: Female violence more common than male violence. Read: (
"Women are victims."
"Women always act in self-defense."
"Women are, unlike men, essentially non-violent."
These are central tenets of the Female Supremacist Narrative: Women are non-violent beings who act in self-defense. It is men who engage in non self-defensive battering.
These assumptions (widely circulated since aggressive government funding, the Feminist financial lifeline, depends on women being depicted as Victims, all the time. Victimization has over the years proven to be a very effective Fundraising Strategy) - that women always act in self-defense, that women are essentially non-aggressive beings - completely fall apart when you look at the Data.
Feminists, organized in a global cartel of journalists, editors, shelters, "advocacy groups", librarians, researchers, are the gatekeepers of truth: they have created a nihilistic dictatorship of opinion in the media to unilaterally indoctrinate the public about Female Violence, silence/cancel Critics and suppress empirical Data.

The Truth about Female Violence

Image Source:
Empirically, we know males and females (worldwide) admit perpetuating non self-defensive minor violence (pushing, shoving, slapping) at equal rates.
Additionally, well conducted large-scale empirical studies state that males and females (worldwide) admit perpetuating severe violence (severe violence can result, for example, in broken bones, lacerations, large bruises) at equal rates.
[-**Straus, Murray A. (2008). Dominance and symmetry in partner violence by male and female university students in 32 nations. Children and Youth Services Review 30( 3): 252-275**
-Whitaker, Daniel J., Tadesse Haileyesus, Monica Swahn, and Linda S. Saltzman (2007). Differences in frequency of violence and reported injury between relationships with reciprocal and nonreciprocal intimate partner violence. American Journal of Public Health 97( 5): 941-947.
-Black, Michele, and seven co-authors (2010). The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: 2010 summary report. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, at p. 43-44.
-Wilson, Margo and Martin Daly (1993). Spousal homicide risk and estrangement. Violence and Victims 8( 1): 3-16.
-Hines, Denise A. and Emily M. Douglas (2011). Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in men who sustain intimate partner violence: A study of helpseeking and community samples. Psychology of Men & Masculinity 12( 2): 112-127.
- Dutton, Donald, Tonia L. Nicholls, and Alicia Spidel (2005). Female perpetrators of intimate abuse. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 41( 4): 1-31.
+ too many to include here]
78-80% of all violence is minor (there are no visible injuries) while 20-22% of violence is severe (This is calculated using data from two Bureau of Justice reports: Rennison, Callie M. and Sarah Welchans (2000). Intimate Partner Violence. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, and, Rennison, Callie M. (2003). Intimate partner violence, 1993-2001. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics).
Violent females tend to have aggressive personalities and/or conduct disorder.
What are the reasons Females commit acts of violence? Anger (68%), to gain attention (53%) and retaliation (49%).

A random selection of Violent Females in action
These are but a few examples. There are thousands of examples like this available for your perusal.

  1. Olga Sterlyadeva confessed to murdering her husband Alexander as he slept. Olga hit his neck twice with an ax, cutting off Alexander's head. Then Olga used a chainsaw to cut up Alexander's body, which she used as fertilizer in her garden. Olga was angry because she thought Alexander was cheating (Stewart, Will (2018). Russian wife decapitates her husband with an axe and 'uses his body as fertilizer for her courgettes." Daily Mail, Jul 20 2018).
  2. Ilham Cahyani asked her husband Dedi for his cell phone password. He refused to give it so Ilham poured gasoline on Dedi and lit him on fire. Dedi suffered an agonizing death over the next two days (Malm, Sara (2019). Wife burns her husband alive in Indonesia after they argued when he refused to give her the password to his phone. Daily Mail, Jan 17 2019).
  3. A pet store CCTV recorded Ms. Lee throwing a puppy against the wall when the owner refused to give her a refund and take the dog back. The dog suffered a brain hemorrhage and died the next day (Aldersley, Miranda (2019). Woman kills puppy by throwing it against a wall at South Korean pet shop when they refused to give her a refund. Daily Mail, Feb 14 2019).
  4. Tanyatorn Ghanjanasak used multiple cell phones to threaten to kill her ex-husband, a soldier in the U.S. Army. She also cut his brake lines and somehow was able to poison him. She admitted doing all this in multiple text messages (Shaffer, Josh (2018). 'The poison was me... dumb ass': Doctor threatened to kill her soldier husband in ominous texts. Stripes, Aug 11 2018).
  5. Tami Huntsman admitted starving, torturing and murdering two children she was caring for -- age three Delylah and age six Shaun (Vankin, Jonathan (2016). Tami Huntsman: Mom charged in horrifying torture, murder of two small children will face death penalty, weeps in court. Inquisitr, Aug 18 2016, and, McPadden, Mike (2018). Tami Huntsman pleads guilty to torture-murder of niece and nephew, gets life., Sep 26 2018).
  6. Jessica Warrent lied to police saying her daughter Armani hit her head while playing. An autopsy showed the cause of death to be a lacerated liver and other injuries from a severe beating. Jessica later admitted she lied to police, confessing that she beat her young daughter to death. What was baby Armani's crime? She couldn't stop wetting the bed (Baker, Neal (2019). Evil mum beat daughter, 4, to death with belt because helpless girl wet herself. The Sun, Mar 18 2019, and, Unattributed (2015). Warrants reveal dead NC 4-year-old suffered lacerated liver in alleged beating. Fox 8, Oct 16 2016).
  7. Amber Hall recorded herself beating her 22 month old daughter so badly that the toddler had to be put into a medically induced coma. The baby sustained permanent brain damage and has to use a feeding tube to eat. The video shows the toddler's hands were bound and tape was put over her mouth. Lawyer R.J. Larizza said: "The videos are beyond disturbing, they enter the realm of a child's most frightening nightmare." (Pleasance, Chris (2018). Mother who beat her 22-month-old daughter so badly she now has to use a feeding tube is sentenced to 40 years in jail." Daily Mail, Sep 16 2018.
  8. Jordan Worth beat and abused her boyfriend, Alex Skeel. She then starved him. She tried to finish the job with a knife. Police found Alex almost dead, laying in a pool of blood (Christodoulou, Holly (2019). Blood everywhere: Moment starved boyfriend, 22, is found '10 days from death' in pool of blood after abusive girlfriend slashed him with a bread knife. The Sun, Feb 18 2019).
  9. Luisa Cutting butchered her best friend, stabbing her 30 times. Covered in blood when police arrived, Luisa said:"Arrest me... I killed her." (Alexa Cannon was found dead with a butcher knife sticking out of her mouth (Griffith, Keith (2019). 'I killed her': College student, 21, 'stabs her best friend 30 times with a butcher knife' and greets cops covered in blood in the apartment they shared. Daily Mail, Jan 25, 2019).
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2020.09.07 15:39 rusticgorilla Lost in the Sauce: DHS hides intelligence that reveals Trump using Russia's playbook, again

Welcome to Lost in the Sauce, keeping you caught up on political and legal news that often gets buried in distractions and theater… or a global health crisis.

Trump’s playbook is Russia’s playbook

The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in July withheld an intelligence bulletin warning of a Russian plot to spread misinformation regarding Joe Biden's mental health. The bulletin, titled “Russia Likely to Denigrate Health of U.S. Candidates to Influence 2020 Election,” was blocked by the office of acting DHS Secretary Chad Wolf on July 9.
  • The bulletin states that analysts had “high confidence” in their conclusion. However, a DHS spokesperson tried to defend the “delay” in issuing the document by saying it did not meet the agency’s standards. This is curious because just a week later, on July 16, DHS circulated a bulletin on anarchists in Portland that officers admitted they had “low confidence” in. Why was the Russia memo held back but the Portland one released?
  • Trump has been pushing the same line of attack against Biden for months - yet another instance of Russia and Trump operating from the same playbook. For instance, in March Trump said there was “something going on” with Biden; in June Trump ran selectively edited ads asserting that Biden is “unfit to serve as Commander in Chief”; last month Trump ran a digital ad portraying Biden as perpetually confused and mentally unstable. Most recently, Trump said questions about his own health are only in the news because “they want to try and get me to be on Biden's physical level."
DHS is just the latest agency in the Trump administration to erode election security, following actions by the Justice Department and the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) last month. DNI John Ratcliffe announced he was ending in-person congressional briefings on election security ahead of November and AG Bill Barr removed a leading career official at the Justice Department’s national security division, replacing him with an inexperienced political appointee.
The ODNI’s decision to halt congressional election briefs may have been influenced by top White House officials. National Security Adviser Robert O’Brien and Chief of Staff Mark Meadows, among others, have repeatedly discussed in meetings with staff and with Trump “how to restrict and control the flow of information on such sensitive topics to Capitol Hill.”
One White House official told The Daily Beast that Meadows has for months been wary of the type of briefings on Capitol Hill that Democratic sources can potentially use to try to make Trump look bad through surreptitious leaks to media outlets.
Meanwhile, interim Chair of the Senate Intelligence Committee Marco Rubio (R-FL) said last week that his committee will be granted an exception to the ODNI’s new policy and continue to receive in-person briefings from top U.S. intelligence officials about election-security issues. This essentially means that only Democrat-led committees have been cut out of the process ensuring election security.
House Democrats wrote to Ratcliffe insinuating if his office does not provide the previously scheduled briefings this month they will issue subpoenas and/or defund the ODNI in the appropriations bill due by the end of the month. Read the letter here.
In addition to attacks on Biden’s health, DHS has determined that Russia is seeking to “amplify” concerns over the integrity of U.S. elections by promoting allegations that mail-in voting will lead to widespread fraud. Intelligence analysts say this strategy has been underway since at least March, coinciding with Trump’s own assaults on mail-in voting.
  • For instance, in March Trump said if he agreed to funding vote-by-mail expansions in the first coronavirus stimulus bill, the U.S. would see “levels of voting that, if you ever agreed to it, you’d never have a Republican elected in this country again” (clip). Fact check: Neither party has historically benefited. On April 7, at the White House press briefing, Trump claimed: "Mail ballots are a very dangerous thing for this country, because they're cheaters… They're fraudulent in many cases" (clip). Fact check: There is no evidence that mail ballots are dangerous or fraudulent.
At a White House press briefing on Friday, Trump denied there is any proof that Russia poisoned opposition leader Alexei Navalny. Instead of backing the German government's analysis of Nalvany's illness, Trump then redirected the criticism from Russia to China (clip).
"I don't know exactly what happened. I think it's tragic. It's terrible; it shouldn't happen. We haven't had any proof yet, but I will take a look. It is interesting that everybody is always mentioning Russia - and I don't mind you mentioning Russia - but I think probably China, at this point, is a nation that you should be talking about much more so than Russia. Because the things that China's doing are far worse.”
Trump then went on to say he’s “taken stronger action against Russia than any other country in the world,” but added “I do get along with President Putin” (clip).
  • RELATED: Leaked notes obtained by the Telegraph say that when Theresa May asked for Trump to take a strong stand after Russia poisoned Sergei Skripal, Trump replied “I’d rather follow than lead.” He pushed May to “put together a coalition” first.
The Trump administration plans to deport a Russian national living in America, a move experts say is in response to a politically motivated request by Russia. Gregory Duralev was persecuted by the Russian state for exposing corruption. He fled to America and applied for asylum in 2015. While waiting for a decision on his application, he was arrested by ICE and jailed for nearly 18 months. His case is now in court.
“DHS has acted no better than the Russian authorities,” Duralev said. “They simply fabricated charges against me for violations I never committed — and if DHS can trump up charges against immigrants with impunity, nobody can guarantee they won’t start doing it” to regular Americans. “So that’s the main message I now hope to send.”

Michael Cohen & Peter Strzok

Former FBI agent Peter Strzok has a book coming out called “Compromised.” In it, he alleges that FBI investigators came to believe it was “conceivable, if unlikely” that Russia was secretly controlling President Trump after he took office:
“We certainly had evidence that this was the case: that Trump, while gleefully wreaking havoc on America’s political institutions and norms, was pulling his punches when it came to our historic adversary, Russia,” Strzok writes. “Given what we knew or had cause to suspect about Trump’s compromising behavior in the weeks, months, and years leading up to the election, moreover, it also seemed conceivable, if unlikely, that Moscow had indeed pulled off the most stunning intelligence achievement in human history: secretly controlling the president of the United States — a Manchurian candidate elected.”
He now says he doesn’t believe that Trump is literally a Russian spy: “I don’t think that Trump, when he meets with Putin, receives a task list for the next quarter,” Strzok said, referencing the Russian president, Vladimir Putin. “But I do think the president is compromised, that he is unable to put the interests of our nation first, that he acts from hidden motives, because there is leverage over him, held specifically by the Russians but potentially others as well.”
In an interview with Politico, Strzok confirms that he and then-deputy FBI Director Andrew McCabe, opened a counterintelligence case on the president, but that it likely was never pursued. Two weeks ago, NYT reported that Rosenstein secretly closed it.
As if there weren’t enough political books coming out this summefall, Michael Cohen is releasing his, called “Disloyal: A Memoir.” The following a couple of quick takeaways:
Cohen says that he, Trump, Aras Agalarov, Emin Agalarov, and others, watched a strip show in Las Vegas where one performer simulated peeing on another performer, who pretended to drink it. Trump reportedly reacted with “delight.” Aras Agalarov, a Russian real estate mogul, is a trusted associate of Putin and reportedly served as a liaison between Trump and the Russian president during Trump’s trip to Moscow.
On Russia, Cohen writes that the cause behind Trump’s admiration of Russian President Vladimir Putin is simpler than many of his critics assume. Above all, he writes, Trump loves money — and he wrongly identified Putin as “the richest man in the world by a multiple.” Trump loved Putin, Cohen wrote, because the Russian leader had the ability “to take over an entire nation and run it like it was his personal company — like the Trump Organization, in fact.”
...According to Cohen, Trump’s sycophantic praise of the Russian leader during the 2016 campaign began as a way to suck up and ensure access to the oligarch’s money after he lost the election. But he claims Trump came to understand that Putin’s hatred of Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton, dating to her support for the 2011 protest movement in Russia, could also help Trump amass more power in the United States.

USPS & mail voting

According to a Washington Post report yesterday, Postmaster Louis DeJoy engaged in campaign money laundering, also called a straw-donor scheme, at his former logistics business. Five of his former employees told WaPo that they were “urged” to donate to politicians in North Carolina and would be paid back through bonuses from DeJoy. Such a plan would allow DeJoy to illegally circumvent campaign donation limits.
“Louis was a national fundraiser for the Republican Party. He asked employees for money. We gave him the money, and then he reciprocated by giving us big bonuses,” said David Young, DeJoy’s longtime director of human resources, who had access to payroll records at New Breed from the late 1990s to 2013 and is now retired.
“He would ask employees to make contributions at the same time that he would say, ‘I’ll get it back to you down the road,’ ” said [another] former employee.
...A Washington Post analysis of federal and state campaign finance records found a pattern of extensive donations by New Breed employees to Republican candidates, with the same amount often given by multiple people on the same day. Between 2000 and 2014, 124 individuals who worked for the company together gave more than $1 million to federal and state GOP candidates. Many had not previously made political donations, and have not made any since leaving the company, public records show.
More than one million mail-in ballots were sent late to voters during the 2020 primary elections, an audit by the USPS IG’s office determined. Most of the ballots were late, the USPS says, because local election boards sent the ballots to voters at the last minute. Official press release.
[The audit] found the problems during primaries had been most pronounced in Kentucky and New York, where a combined 628,000 ballots were sent out late. In 17 states, the audit found, more than 589,000 ballots were sent from election boards to voters after the state’s ballot mailing deadline. In 11 states, more than 44,000 ballots were sent from election boards to voters the day of or the day before the state’s primary election.
One particularly troubling situation, auditors found, unfolded in Pennsylvania, where 500 ballots were sent to voters the day after the election.
Furthermore, only 13% of the ballots were mailed with the recommended bar code tracking technology.
Florida Rep. Debbie Wasserman Schultz (D) was blocked from attending two scheduled tours of USPS facilities last week. Local Postal Service officials informed her and union leaders waiting to accompany her into the building that national USPS leadership had directed them to bar the group from the building. A Postal Service spokeswoman said they simply needed more notice for a tour.
Many states, including important battleground states, are not legally permitted to process mail-in/absentee ballots until Election Day, leading to concern that results will be delayed by days or weeks. For instance, in Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, and Michigan election officials cannot even begin processing ballots until Election Day. Processing involves opening envelopes, flattening ballots to run through the scanning machine, and prepping for the scanning.
"When voters have to wait so long for results, it erodes trust in the process and leaves room for partisan bad actors to dispute the will of the people," said Amber McReynolds, CEO of the National Vote at Home Institute, a nonprofit organization.
AG Bill Barr made three stunning false claims about mail voting during an interview with Wolf Blitzer last week. First, Barr wouldn’t even acknowledge that voting twice is a crime - because just hours earlier, Trump encouraged his North Carolina supporters to vote twice to “test” the state’s mail-in voting system (clip).
BLITZER: It sounds like he’s encouraging people to break the law and try to vote twice.
BARR: It seems to me what he’s saying is, he’s trying to make the point that the ability to monitor this system is not good. And it was so good, if you tried to vote a second time you would be caught if you voted in person.
BLITZER: That would be illegal if they did that. If somebody mailed in a ballot and then actually showed up to vote in person, that would be illegal.
BARR: "I don't know what the law in the particular state says.”
BLITZER: You can’t vote twice.
BARR: "I don't know what the law in the particular state says.”
Then, Barr tried to assert that foreign countries could fake ballots, but when challenged he admitted he had no evidence (clip).
BLITZER: You’ve said you were worried that a foreign country could send thousands of fake ballots, thousands of fake ballots to people that it might be impossible to detect. What are you basing that on?
BARR: I’m basing — as I’ve said repeatedly, I’m basing that on logic.
BLITZER: Pardon?
BARR: Logic.
Finally, Barr cited a supposed incident of mail-in voting fraud in Texas. Too bad it doesn’t exist.

The payroll

Charles Rettig, the Trump-appointed IRS Commissioner who has refused to release President Trump’s tax returns, has made hundreds of thousands of dollars renting out Trump properties while in office. Rettig makes $100,000 - $200,000 a year from two units at Trump International Waikiki. When first nominated, Rettig failed to disclose his financial ties to Trump Waikiki. When questioned by Congress, he did not directly answer concerns about the properties.
CREW: With Trump’s name removed from some buildings as it began to hurt property values, we can only imagine how toxic it would become if a bombshell in his tax returns were released. Which means the IRS Commissioner has a vested interest in the success of the Trump brand—and of preventing anything that could damage it.
Voice of America staffers say Trump appointee Michael Pack is threatening to wash away legal protections intended to insulate their news reports from political meddling. Since arriving, Pack has fired the network's leaders, pushed out agency executives, refused to approve allotted budgets, and refused to renew visas for foreign employees.
  • Further reading: “Deleted Biden video sets off a crisis at Voice of America,” Politico.
Pack suggested the staff he fired and foreign journalists he essentially kicked out may have been foreign spies, without offering any evidence to support his claim. A group of 14 senior VOA journalists are openly disputing his explanation:
“Mr. Pack has made a thin excuse that his actions are meant to protect national security, but just as was the case with the McCarthy ‘Red Scare,’ which targeted VOA and other government organizations in the mid-1950s, there has not been a single demonstrable case of any individual working for VOA — as the USAGM CEO puts it — ‘posing as a spy,’ ” they wrote.
The White House is searching for a replacement for Federal Trade Commission Chair Joe Simons, a Republican who has publicly resisted President Donald Trump’s efforts to crack down on social media companies. Simons, a veteran antitrust lawyer, cannot legally be removed by the president except in cases of gross negligence. But the White House has already interviewed at least one candidate for the post.
  • RELATED: The Justice Department plans to bring an antitrust case against Google as soon as this month, after Attorney General William P. Barr overruled career lawyers who said they needed more time to build a strong case.
Richard Grenell, formerly the highest-ranking out gay official in the Trump administration, has joined a law firm founded by Pat Robertson that has a history of opposing LGBTQ+ rights. Grenell also recently joined the Republican National Committee to do outreach to LGBTQ+ voters.
The Trump administration has quietly named a new acting State Department inspector general. Matthew Klimow, the U.S. ambassador to Turkmenistan since mid-2019, is the third acting IG since Trump and Pompeo ousted Senate-confirmed IG Steve Linick in May.
Mick Mulvaney, Trump’s current special envoy to Northern Ireland, former Chief of Staff, and former acting head of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, is starting a hedge fund focused on financial services regulation. Ethics experts say Mulvaney explicitly using his knowledge of CFPB to place bets for and against companies gives him an unfair and perhaps illegal advantage.

Court and DOJ matters

Court cases
The Trump administration must, for now, stop winding down in-person counting efforts for the 2020 census, a federal judge in California ordered.
The three-judge panel hearing a challenge to Trump’s new anti-immigrant census policy seemed hostile to the government’s arguments in a hearing last week.
A federal judge has stopped the Trump administration from enforcing a rule change that would let health care providers deny medical services to LGBTQ patients on the grounds of religion.
Justice Department
Federal prosecutors are preparing to charge longtime GOP fundraiser Elliott Broidy in connection with efforts to influence the U.S. government on behalf of foreign interests. Broidy helped raise millions for Donald Trump’s election and the Republican Party.
Barr ordered another round of changes to FISA rules, tightening the use of government surveillance on political candidates or their staffers — a move conservatives will likely cheer, as they have long criticized how the FBI investigated the Trump campaign in 2016.
Before conducting physical searches or wiretaps of a federal election official, members of the official's staff, candidates for federal office, or their staff or advisers, the FBI must now consider giving them a "defensive briefing," to tell them that they could be the target of foreign influence.
submitted by rusticgorilla to Keep_Track [link] [comments]

2020.09.07 09:00 Shigalyov Chapter 3 (The Strangest Story in the World) - The Everlasting Man Part 1

This chapter continues Christ's journey. Chesterton highlights the distinct nature of Jesus: his divinity. He then focuses on Christ's main mission - to die. Both of these aspects set him apart from all the other philosophies and religions.

Christ's divinity
For this is the very last character that commonly goes with mere megalomania; especially such steep and staggering megalomania as might be involved in that claim.
In essence, consider what we've seen so far in the last two chapters. About Christ's behaviour. Is that the behaviour of a megalomaniac or a lunatic?
"There is a sort of notion in the air everywhere that all the religions are equal because all the religious founders were rivals, that they are all fighting for the same starry crown. It is quite false. The claim to that crown, or anything like that crown, is really so rare as to be unique. Mahomet did not make it any more than Micah or Malachi. Confucius did not make it any more that Plato or Marcus Aurelius. Buddha never said he was Brahma. Zoroaster no more claimed to be Ormuz than to be Ahriman"
This is important and goes to the heart of any comparison between Christianity and others. All of the other philosophers or prophets were just that: philosophers or prophets. The philosophers would sometimes talk about God's nature. The prophets in turn would speak on behalf of God. This applies to every single one we've covered: Judaism, Islam, Buddha, Plato, Aristotle, etc. Not a single one of these prophets or philosophers claimed to be God. Right there you have a massive difference in kind between Christianity and the rest. As Chesterton notes, even if the Church is wrong in interpreting Christ's words this way, it is nonetheless a unique blunder which no other philosophy has ever made.
To be fair, I think the very closest one could get to this are the Hindu "avatars" of the gods Vishnu, Krishna and others. In fact if I recall correctly Hindus think Jesus himself was such an avatar. But I do not know enough about these to comment more on this.
Normally speaking, the greater a man is, the less likely he is to make the very greatest claim. Outside the unique case we are considering, the only kind of man who ever does make that kind of claim is a very small man; a secretive or self-centered monomaniac. Nobody can imagine Aristotle claiming to be the father of gods and men, come down from the sky; though we might imagine some insane Roman Emperor like Caligula claiming it for him, or more probably for himself. Nobody can imagine Shakespeare talking as if he were literally divine; though we might imagine some crazy American crank finding it as a cryptogram in Shakespeare's works, or preferably in his own works.
Here Chesterton starts to give be explicit about an argument which C. S. Lewis developed further. It is quite obvious to us that people who do in fact claim to be God are either lunatics or absolute megalomaniacs. Importantly:
this is exactly where the argument becomes intensely interesting; because the argument proves too much. For nobody supposes that Jesus of Nazareth was that sort of person. No modern critic in his five wits thinks that the preacher of the Sermon on the Mount was a horrible half-witted imbecile that might be scrawling stars on the walls of a cell. No atheist or blasphemer believes that the author of the Parable of the Prodigal Son was a monster with one mad idea like a cyclops with one eye. Upon any possible historical criticism, he must be put higher in the scale of human beings than that. Yet by all analogy we have really to put him there or else in the highest place of all."
C. S. Lewis put it even better:
I am trying here to prevent anyone saying the really foolish thing that people often say about Him: "I'm ready to accept Jesus as a great moral teacher, but I don't accept His claim to be God." That is the one thing we must not say. A man who was merely a man and said the sort of things Jesus said would not be a great moral teacher. He would either be a lunatic — on a level with the man who says he is a poached egg — or else he would be the Devil of Hell. You must make your choice. Either this man was, and is, the Son of God: or else a madman or something worse. You can shut Him up for a fool, you can spit at Him and kill Him as a demon; or you can fall at His feet and call Him Lord and God. But let us not come with any patronising nonsense about His being a great human teacher. He has not left that open to us. He did not intend to.

Christ's mission
The second aspect that Chesterton focuses on is Christ's goal. What his ultimate intentions were.
"But there is another quality running through all his teachings which seems to me neglected in most modern talk about them as teachings; and that is the persistent suggestion that he has not really come to teach.
At least it certainly meant a general plan or purpose in the mind, with which certain things did or did not fit in. And if we leave out that solitary strategic plan, we not only leave out the point of the story, but the story."
He had an aim. He did not just walk around teaching people. He did do that, but it was not his main focus. In the Gospels time and again you read about how his "face was set for Jerusalem". He prophecies his death and seems to have it in mind as his main goal.

"It is assuredly well to remember that he would quite certainly have been moved on by the police and almost certainly arrested by the police for having no visible means of subsistence."
Somewhat off topic. This reminds me of a song by Kris Kristofferson. It is worth a listen.

Comparison with Apollonius of Tyana and others
"Apollonius of Tyana, who figured in some fashionable cults as a sort of ideal philosopher, is represented as rambling as far as the Ganges and Ethiopia, more or less talking all the time."
According to Wikipedia Apollonius lived around 15 to 100 AD and came from Anatolia (modern day Turkey). He was a contemporary of Jesus.
"Philostratus describes Apollonius as a wandering teacher of philosophy and miracle-worker who was mainly active in Greece and Asia Minor but also traveled to Italy, Spain, and North Africa, and even to Mesopotamia, India, and Ethiopia. In particular, he tells lengthy stories of Apollonius entering the city of Rome in disregard of emperor Nero’s ban on philosophers, and later on being summoned, as a defendant, to the court of Domitian, where he defied the emperor in blunt terms. He had allegedly been accused of conspiring against the emperor, performing human sacrifice, and predicting a plague by means of magic. Philostratus implies that upon his death, Apollonius of Tyana underwent heavenly assumption."
It seems he is often compared to Jesus by both modern sceptics (Bart Ehrman, Robert Price) and historical ones (Voltaire). The Wikipedia article interestingly counters this with reference to this very chapter by Chesterton.
"His death is wrapped in mystery, although he is said to have lived to be nearly one hundred years of age. His disciples were quick to say that he had not died at all, but had been caught up to heaven. When he had vanished from the Earth, the inhabitants of his native Tyana built a temple in his honor, and statues were raised to him in various other temples"
Back to Chesterton:
"Socrates did indeed find the conversation interrupted by the incident of his execution. But it is the whole point and the whole particular merit, of the position of Socrates that death was only an interruption and an incident. We miss the real moral importance of the great philosopher if we miss that point; that he stares at the executioner with an innocent surprise, and almost an innocent annoyance, at finding anyone so unreasonable as to cut short a little conversation for the elucidation of truth. He is looking for truth and not looking for death. Death is but a stone in the road which can trip him up."
As mentioned in a previous chapter, Socrates was condemned to death by the Athenians. He was not even very bothered by it. But it interrupted a fruitful life of conversation with his friends and pupils.
"Buddha, on the other hand, did arrest attention by one gesture; it was the gesture of renunciation, and therefore in a sense of denial. But by one dramatic negation he passed into a world of negation that was not dramatic; which he would have been the first to insist was not dramatic. Here again we miss the particular moral importance of the great mystic if we do not see the distinction; that it was his whole point that he had done with drama, which consists of desire and struggle and generally of defeat and disappointment. He passes into peace and lives to instruct others how to pass into it."
Whereas Socrates was interrupted by death, Buddha's main thesis is a lack of climax. His aim was ultimately non-existence. If he had a climax it was at enlightenment, not death. He went on to teach others after obtaining his goal.
"He may be met as if straying in strange places, or stopped on the way for discussion or dispute; but his face is set towards the mountain city."
In contrast, Jesus' main aim was not teachings or miracles. It was the cross.
"I have compared the quest to the journey of Jason, but we must never forget that in a deeper sense it is rather to be compared to the journey of Ulysses. It was not only a romance of travel but a romance of return; and of the end of a usurpation. No healthy boy reading the story regards the rout of the Ithacan suitors as anything but a happy ending. "
In the Odyssey, Odysseus (or the latinized name Ulysseus) spent years trying to return from the Trojan Wars to his own kingdom of Ithaca. He had numerous obstacles alone the way. When he came home he found his house in disorder as tens of men basically had taken over the palace. There they kept trying to pressure Odysseus's wife into marrying one of them. Odysseus and his son slew them all.
"It is characteristic of the contrast perhaps that Apollonius was supposed to have lived to an almost miraculous old age. Jesus of Nazareth was less prudent in his miracles. When Jesus was brought before the judgement-seat of Pontius Pilate, he did not vanish. It was the crisis and the goal; it was the hour and the power of darkness. It was the supremely supernatural act, of all his miraculous life, that he did not vanish."
What more can be said? For Socrates death was an interruption. For Buddha it was not the main goal. Apollonius, when faced with possible death, vanished. Jesus in contrast, despite his similarities to them, did not vanish or simply acquiesce to it or ignore it. Death was the goal. If we affirm that he could do miracles, then that would have been the best time to perform one. But the real miracle is that he did not.

The death of myth and philosophy and the end of the world
The entire world in all its main aspects condemned him to death. The same forces that were present at his birth, were present at his execution.
"It is more within my powers, and here more immediately to my purpose, to point out that in that scene were symbolically gathered all the human forces that have been vaguely sketched in this story. As kings and philosophers and the popular element had been symbolically present at his birth, so they were more practically concerned in his death; and with that we come face to face with the essential fact to be realised."
Judgment of myth
"Standing between the pillars of his own judgement-seat, a Roman had washed his hands of the world."
Rome was that embodiment of civilization and myth. It triumphed over the demons of Carthage. But at this point, as mentioned at the end of Part 1, scepticism almost ruined it. Myth itself was not enough. It could not sustain itself.
Judgment of religion
"There too were the priests of that pure and original truth that was behind all the mythologies like the sky behind the clouds. It was the most important truth in the world; and even that could not save the world."
The Jews in turn had the true religion. The true monotheism. But they also rejected him.
Judgment of the people
"so it was with the element which was perhaps the best, or which Christ himself seems certainly to have felt as the best. The poor to whom he preached the good news, the common people who heard him gladly, the populace that had made so many popular heroes and demigods in the old pagan world, showed also the weaknesses that were dissolving the world."
Even the poor, that group excluded by most philosophies and religions, even they rejected him.
All together
"The mob went along with the Sadducees and the Pharisees, the philosophers and the moralists. It went along with the imperial magistrates and the sacred priests, the scribes and the soldiers, that the one universal human spirit might suffer a universal condemnation; that there might be one deep, unanimous chorus of approval and harmony when Man was rejected of men."
And with that all of it came together. The philosophers, mythologists, priests, rulers, the poor, the rich, the powerful - all united in rejecting God.
But by doing so they died with him:
"The mythologies and the philosophies were buried there, the gods and the heroes and the sages. In the great Roman phrase, they had lived. But as they could only live, so they could only die; and they were dead."

"On the third day the friends of Christ coming at daybreak to the place found the grave empty and the stone rolled away. In varying ways they realised the new wonder; but even they hardly realised that the world had died in the night. What they were looking at was the first day of a new creation, with a new heaven and a new earth; and in a semblance of the gardener God walked again in the garden, in the cool not of the evening but the dawn"
With Christ's death all of the previous corruptions died. All the myths, philosophies, and demons. It reminds me of baptism. How at the moment of redemption you die with Christ, putting off the old and embracing the new.
I do not know if this is theologically sound, but the comparison between the two gardens and a "new creation" is very applicable. Christ rose on the Sunday. The first day of the week. Indeed in Spanish, Russian and other languages the word for Sunday is "Resurrection" or has some link with Christ (Domingo, Voskresenye). This is interesting for me because in a way Christ's resurrection is a new creation week. A new Day 1. The old things indeed have passed away. A new age has begun.

This is not part of the chapter but I figured it would be worth including.
Whether Jesus actually made the claim to be God is something interesting worth a few paragraphs. I can go so much more in depth on this, but these are a few themes or verses that come to mind at the moment.
The Gospel of John said that Jesus is the Word and that the Word is God. The same Gospel makes the "Before Abraham was, I am" statement of the previous chapter. It also includes Thomas saying "My Lord and My God". In the Synoptics you have Jesus being questioned before Caiaphas. When asked whether he is the Messiah, Jesus said "I am" and "you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Mighty One and coming on the clouds of heaven." This is a reference to the Son of Man in Daniel 7 who came with the clouds of heaven and who was given all authority, glory and sovereign power and worshipped by all nations. Even more the theme of the "cloud rider" was taken from pagans by Jews and applied to Yahweh (in Isaiah I believe), which makes Jesus riding the clouds an additional blatant affirmation of his deity.
Furthermore, only God can forgive sins, yet Jesus forgave sins (again, in his own name and not speaking on God's behalf). The Jews even wanted to stone him for this. He claimed to be Lord of the Sabbath. Who but God can amend covenant obligations? He commanded the waters multiple times, an act understood by the ancients to be divine in nature and which has callbacks to the Exodus (many ancient myths have the gods warring over chaotic waters in their establishment of order). He also compared himself to a son of an a field owner in a parable of his, implying his unique relationship to the Father. He is called the First and the Last, a title only given to God. I can go on and on by speaking about Old Testament prophecies, Pauline stories and others. For now this might just help.
One more thing. He was worshipped from the very beginning. This disproves any possible change in Christian doctrine. Not only can the Gospels and epistles be dated to between 5 years and a few decades (40 years?) after the resurrection, but extra-biblical sources affirm this too.
Tacitus, when writing on Jesus, mentions a "most mischievous superstition". Pliny the Younger in around 112 says that when Christians gathered they "sang an anthem to Christ as God". Lucian of Samosata, a second-century Greek satirist, further says that Christians "worship the crucified sage".
On the historicity off the crucifixion itself I want to say one more thing. I plan to still do a short overview of the evidence for the Resurrection where I will include debates around Christ's historicity and death as well. I hope I get to that at some point. But for now just know that even the most radical sceptical scholars admit at least one point: Christ's death by crucifixion under Pilate as a fact of history. Whatever your views on his resurrection and Christ's ideology, his death (and existence) are historical. Just keep it in mind.
For a few sources on Christ's divinity, look at these. They are all coincidentally made in response to Muslims. Muslims believe Jesus was merely a prophet, so Christ's divinity often come up in discussions. There are other sources as well but these three came to mind.
William Lane Craig on the tenant parable
IslamCritiqued on Shabir Ally's "Markian theory"
David Wood on "Where does Jesus say 'I am God, worship me'".

Read it here
Chapter list
submitted by Shigalyov to GKChesterton [link] [comments]

2020.09.06 22:30 StevenStevens43 Ancient Cymru

Ancient Cymru
Cymru is the old Welsh name for Wales.
Wales (Welsh: Cymru [ˈkəm.rɨ] (📷listen)) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
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Welsh flag
Now, Aryan looking people can be traced all the way back to at least 2600 BC in positions of high power in Ancient egypt.
There is copious amounts of evidence for this.
I will provide "one" piece of evidence for this thread.
Mereruka served during the Sixth Dynasty of Egypt as one of Egypt's most powerful officials at a time when the influence of local state noblemen was increasing in wealth and power. Mereruka held numerous titles along with that of Vizier), which made him the most powerful person in Egypt after the king himself.
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Ancient Egypt had pretty much been under foreign influence and rulership, for much of Ancient Egypts history.
However this changed again, in 1549 BC, when "not for the first time", a native ancient Egyptian launched a successful Theban uprising against foreign rulers, and expelled them from Egypt.
Ahmose I
Ahmose I (Ancient Egyptian: jꜥḥ ms(j.w), reconstructed /ʔaʀaħ'ma:sjə/ (MK), Egyptological pronunciation Ahmose, sometimes written as Amosis or Aahmes, meaning "Iah (the Moon) is born"[5][6]) was a pharaoh and founder of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt, classified as the first dynasty of the New Kingdom of Egypt, the era in which ancient Egypt achieved the peak of its power. He was a member of the Theban royal house, the son of pharaoh Seqenenre Tao and brother of the last pharaoh of the Seventeenth dynasty, Kamose. During the reign of his father or grandfather, Thebes rebelled against the Hyksos, the rulers of Lower Egypt. When he was seven years old, his father was killed,[7] and he was about ten when his brother died of unknown causes after reigning only three years. Ahmose I assumed the throne after the death of his brother,[8] and upon coronation became known as nb-pḥtj-rꜥ "The Lord of Strength is Ra".
During his reign, Ahmose completed the conquest and expulsion of the Hyksos from the Nile Delta, restored Theban rule over the whole of Egypt and successfully reasserted Egyptian power in its formerly subject territories of Nubia and Canaan.
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Ahmose I
Thutmose III:
However the native ancient Egyptians did not leave it here. And one of Ahmose I's descendants would lead the greatest military invasion in to enemy lands, that the Ancient egyptian empire ever saw.
Thutmose III
Widely considered a military genius by historians, Thutmose III conducted at least 16 campaigns in 20 years.[14] He was an active expansionist ruler, sometimes called Egypt's greatest conqueror or "the Napoleon of Egypt."[15] He is recorded to have captured 350 cities during his rule and conquered much of the Near East from the Euphrates to Nubia during seventeen known military campaigns. He was the first pharaoh after Thutmose I to cross the Euphrates, doing so during his campaign against Mitanni.
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Thutmose III
Mitanni kings:
Now, it must be pointed out, that Thutmose was now subjugating kings that are on the outskirts of a European empire, as the Mitanni kings, even though their kingdom is populated by Akkadian/Sumerian speakers, are in fact Indo-Aryan kings.
They are likely on the retreat, from this Hyksos conquest, but they also likely have an empire of their own they can call upon, if required.
While the Mitanni kings were supposedly Indo-Aryan, they used the language of the local people, which was at that time a non-Indo-European language, Hurrian.
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Hittite empire:
Now, to the left of the kings of Mitanni, there was an empire named "the Hittite empire".
The Hittites came down and became native Egypts biggest rival, and immediately put the Egyptian expansion in to reverse.
Between the 15th and 13th centuries BCE, the Empire of Hattusa, conventionally called the Hittite Empire, came into conflict with the New Kingdom of Egypt, the Middle Assyrian Empire and the empire of the Mitanni for control of the Near East.
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Hittite empire
Now, the Hittites were not native to Antolia, they were actually european.
Originally, they were likely from the Caucasus, pretty close to the Scandinavian land bridge between Russia and Finland.
They came from Old europe, which makes them 50% Aryan, at the very least.
You might also want to ask yourself, how on earth did this empire just suddenly become powerful enough to put the Ancient egyptian empire in to reverse?
According to Anthony, steppe herders, archaic Proto-Indo-European speakers, spread into the lower Danube valley about 4200–4000 BC, either causing or taking advantage of the collapse of Old Europe).[25] Their languages "probably included archaic Proto-Indo-European dialects of the kind partly preserved later in Anatolian."[26] Their descendants later moved into Anatolia at an unknown time but maybe as early as 3000 BC.[27] According to J. P. Mallory it is likely that the Anatolians reached the Near East from the north either via the Balkans or the Caucasus in the 3rd millennium BC.[28]
Now eventually the Hittites conquered the Egyptian vassalship of Babylonia.
Though the Hittites handed vassalship of Babylonia over to their Kassite allies, thus turning Babylonia in to a Hittite vassal kingdom.
Old kingdom
Mursili continued the conquests of Hattusili I. Mursili's conquests reached southern Mesopotamia and even ransacked Babylon itself in 1531 BC (short chronology).[44] Rather than incorporate Babylonia into Hittite domains, Mursili seems to have instead turned control of Babylonia over to his Kassite allies,
Of course, the Semitic/Sumerian ex babylonians did not give up Babylonia that easily, and likely retreated to a swampy area in Sealand, from were they could continue to conduct hit and run guerrilla warfare upon the Kassites.
Ea-gâmil, the ultimate king of the dynasty, fled to Elam ahead of an invading horde led by Kassite chief Ulam-Buriaš, brother of the king of Babylon Kashtiliash III, who conquered the Sealand, incorporated it into Babylonia and “made himself master of the land.”
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Sealand dynasty:
The Kassites were likely able to defeat the Sealanders with the help of their navy, and add "master of Sealand", to the growing number of Hittite titles.
It is likely that the Kassites were the Naval arm of the Hittite empire, and this is why Babylonia was given to the Kassites.
The perfect area for a naval base, given the Port of UR allowing easy access to the Indian ocean, and port of Tyre offering easy access to the Mediterranaen, as well as easy access to the Euphrates and Tigres.
The Hittites likely had other Western naval groups that were in supervision of Troy.
Sealand dynasty
The Sealand Dynasty, (URU.KÙKI[nb 1][1][2]) or the 2nd Dynasty of Babylon (although it was independent of Amorite-ruled Babylon), very speculatively c. 1732–1460 BC (short chronology), is an enigmatic series of kings attested to primarily in laconic references in the king lists A and B, and as contemporaries recorded on the Assyrian Synchronistic king list A.117. The dynasty, which had broken free of the short lived, and by this time crumbling Babylonian Empire, was named for the province in the far south of Mesopotamia, a swampy region bereft of large settlements which gradually expanded southwards with the silting up of the mouths of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers
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Naval bases
Ramesses III:
Rameeses III's reign ended with the end of the Native egyptian empire.
He was able to win a "battle" against the Sea peoples, but unfortunately, the 200 year war against Sea peoples, took it's toll on Egypt, and Egypt fell to the Hittites Libyan allies.
Ramesses III
He led the way by defeating the invaders known as "the Sea Peoples", who had caused destruction in other civilizations and empires. He was able to save Egypt from collapsing at the time when many other empires fell during the Late Bronze Age; however, the damage of the invasions took a toll on Egypt.[1]
Constant war:
Constant war against Libyans, and Sea peoples, took it's toll.
Tenure of constant war
During his long tenure in the midst of the surrounding political chaos of the Late Bronze Age collapse, Egypt was beset by foreign invaders (including the so-called Sea Peoples and the Libyans)
Ramesses II:
Hittite land armies began defeating the crumbling Egyptian land armies, as the Egyptians simply could not handle fighting Sea peoples attacking from boats and rivers, Libyans, at the same time as fighting Hittites in pitch battles.
Third Syria campaign
Egypt's sphere of influence was now restricted to Canaan while Syria fell into Hittite hands.
Merneptah recorded the defeat as being a defeat coming from "Northerners" of all lands.
[Beginning of the victory that his majesty achieved in the land of Libya] -I, Ekwesh, Teresh, Lukka, Sherden, Shekelesh, Northerners coming from all lands.
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23rd dynasty:
By the 23rd dynasty, Libyans would assume the throne of Egypt.
Libyans had been one of Egypts longest lasting enemies.
23rd dynasty of egypt
The Twenty-third Dynasty of Egypt (notated Dynasty XXIII, alternatively 23rd Dynasty or Dynasty 23) is usually classified as the third dynasty of the ancient Egyptian Third Intermediate Period. This dynasty consisted of a number of Meshwesh ancient Libyan (Berber) kings, who ruled either as pharaohs or independent kings of parts of Upper Egypt from 880 BC to 720 BC, and pharaohs from 837 BC to 728 BC.
Now, i would like to go back to the earliest known roots for the Hittite empire.
Ukraine would be a good start, as Ukraine is pretty close to the Caucasus.
Ukraine (Ukrainian: Україна, romanized: Ukrayina, pronounced [ʊkrɐˈjinɐ] (📷listen); Russian: Украина, tr. Ukraina, IPA: [ʊkrɐˈinə]) is a country in Eastern Europe.[10] It is bordered by Russia to the east and north-east; Belarus to the north; Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west; and Romania, Moldova, and the Black Sea to the south. Ukraine also borders the Crimean Peninsula to its south, which Russia annexed from Ukraine in 2014, though Ukraine still continues to claim the territory.[11] Including the Crimean Peninsula, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2 (233,062 sq mi),[12] making it the second-largest country by area in Europe after Russia,
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Now, in around 700 BC there was a tribe/army turned up in the Ukraine named the Scoloti.
This tribe allied themselves to the already existing tribe/army, in this region, named "the Crimmerians".
You have likely heard of the Scoloti.
Another name for them, is Scythians.
The Scythians are a people at the centre of the age of migrations, were tribes begin branching off in their seperate directions across europe, likely at the end of the fall of the Hittite empire.
The migrations, take the exact same root as the previous migrations, only, this time, in the opposite direction.
Based in what is modern-day Ukraine and southern Russia, the Scythians called themselves Scoloti and were led by a nomadic warrior aristocracy known as the Royal Scythians.
In the 7th century BC, the Scythians crossed the Caucasus and frequently raided the Middle East along with the Cimmerians, playing an important role in the political developments of the region.[10]
Link for photo
Age of migrations
Now, according to Norse-mythology, the first Swedish kings arrived in Sweden at the end of the age of Migrations.
The Ynglings were a legendary dynasty of kings, supposedly originating from Sweden. It can refer to the clans of the Scylfings (Old Norse Skilfingar), the semi-legendary royal Swedish clan during the Age of Migrations,
In fact, they "usurped" already existing Swedish thrones.
Onela was according to Beowulf a Swedish king, the son of Ongentheow and the brother of Ohthere. He usurped the Swedish throne, but was killed by his nephew Eadgils, who won by hiring foreign assistance.
Now Cimmerians pre-dated the Scythians in this region, though they did ally themselves with the Scythians.Scoloti, suggesting they already had some cultural association, though in fact, they were slightly seperate peoples.
The Cimmerians (also Kimmerians; Greek: Κιμμέριοι, Kimmérioi) were a nomadic Indo-European people, who appeared about 1000 BC[1] and are mentioned later in 8th century BC in Assyrian records. While the Cimmerians were often described by contemporaries as culturally "Scythian", they evidently differed ethnically from the Scythians proper, who also displaced and replaced the Cimmerians
It is to do with the fact that Doggerland once connected britain to France, and therefore Britain was a little more Eurasian in genetics than those from the house of Ynglings, that are pure Aryans.
Link for photo
The Scotoli would actually later turn on the Cimmerians, and send them in to Germany.
the Scythians replaced the Cimmerians as the dominant power on the Pontic Steppe in the 8th century BC.[10
Royal family:
The Cimmerians did not stand a chance against the Scotoli/Scythians, as the Royal family were Scotoli.
Scoloti and were led by a nomadic warrior aristocracy known as the Royal Scythians.
Now, it is likely that the "Meshwesh" referred to by Ramesses III as being one of the many groups which made up the Sea-peoples, the Meshwesh were likely Cimmerians.
Tenure of constant war
internal strife which would eventually lead to the collapse of the Twentieth Dynasty. In Year 8 of his reign, the Sea Peoples, including Peleset, Denyen, Shardana, Meshwesh of the sea, and Tjekker, invaded Egypt by land and sea.
Welsh man:
Now, the reason for this, is that Cimmerian translates in to the old Brythonic language as "Welshman".
This theory is accepted now, so much, that most scholars and historians now accept, that the Cimmerians were under over-lordship
Early modern historians asserted Cimmerian descent for the Celts or the Germans, arguing from the similarity of Cimmerii to Cimbri or Cymry. The etymology of Cymro "Welshman" (plural: Cymry), connected to the Cimmerians by 17th-century Celticists, is now accepted by Celtic linguists as being derived from a Brythonic word *kom-brogos, meaning "compatriot".[21] The Cambridge Ancient History classifies the Maeotians as either a people of Cimmerian ancestry or as Caucasian under Iranian overlordship.[22]
Does this mean that the Cimmerians were Welsh?
Not exactly.
It means that Brythonic speaking people with origins in Briton were in the middle to near east, fighting wars, during this period, and were likely fighting for the legendary, but most likely, factual, house of Ynglings.
It also means, it is likely not unbelievable in the slightest, that in 900 BC, a man named Brutus turned up on the shores of cornwall in a boat, and became the first King of Britain.
Brutus of Troy:
Link for photo
Brutus, or Brute of Troy, is a legendary descendant of the Trojan hero Aeneas, known in medieval British history as the eponymous founder and first king of Britain. This legend first appears in the Historia Brittonum, an anonymous 9th-century historical compilation to which commentary was added by Nennius, but is best known from the account given by the 12th-century chronicler Geoffrey of Monmouth in his Historia Regum Britanniae.

It would actually be more unbelievable, that this legend, is not true. Given what we know about contemporary history.
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2020.09.04 16:20 Swartz_died_for_noth "moderates" "freedom fighters"

Saudi tourist.
Boko Harem
After the Kurds took over that Syrian region they moved into Christian towns which they removed christian leaders from power, shut down christian schools, confiscated privately owned & church property.
Look at all of that oil.
The directive warns against the “Arabization” of Islamic places, fashions and rituals in China, singling out the influence of Saudi Arabia, the home of Islam’s holiest sites, as a cause for concern.
How do the Saudis promote their religious views? By investing heavily in building mosques, madrasas, schools, and Sunni cultural centers across the Muslim world. Indian intelligence says that in India alone, from 2011 to 2013, some 25,000 Saudi clerics arrived bearing more than $250 million to build mosques and universities and hold seminars. "We are talking about thousands and thousands of activist organizations and preachers who are in the Saudi sphere of influence," said Usama Hasan, a researcher in Islamic studies. These institutions and clerics preach the specifically Saudi version of Sunni Islam, the extreme fundamentalist strain known as Wahhabism or Salafism.
How did it catch on?
Wahhabism ensured its modern-day survival largely through gaining the support of the Saudi royal family. The movement has a longstanding alliance with the family dating back to 1744 and helping to found the first Saudi State, the BBC reports.
Wahhabism found new life in the 20th century when Abdulaziz ibn Saud (who ruled from 1932 to ­'53) seized on it as a way of uniting the fractious tribes. In 1979 the family saw its tactical use as part of an anti-Soviet campaign in Afghanistan and encouraged young Muslim men to travel there to fight a jihad against the Russians. The Saudis began spending heavily on mosques, propaganda and teaching in order to spread the creed.
The US State Department estimates that over the past 40 years Riyadh has invested more than $10bn into charitable foundations as part of a programme to replace mainstream Sunni practices with a more extremist brand.
In 2013, Strasbourg's European Parliament declared Salafism/Wahhabism to be the main source of global terrorism, with a report linking it to the Benghazi attacks and the war in Syria among other atrocities. According to the Daily Telegraph, some 15 to 20 per cent of the $10bn set aside by Saudi Arabia to promote its favored form of Islam may have been diverted to al-Qaeda and other violent jihadists.
In 2013, Strasbourg's European Parliament declared Salafism/Wahhabism to be the main source of global terrorism, with a report linking it to the Benghazi attacks and the war in Syria among other atrocities. According to the Daily Telegraph, some 15 to 20 per cent of the $10bn set aside by Saudi Arabia to promote its favored form of Islam may have been diverted to al-Qaeda and other violent jihadists.
In 2013, Strasbourg's European Parliament declared Salafism/Wahhabism to be the main source of global terrorism, with a report linking it to the Benghazi attacks and the war in Syria among other atrocities. According to the Daily Telegraph, some 15 to 20 per cent of the $10bn set aside by Saudi Arabia to promote its favored form of Islam may have been diverted to al-Qaeda and other violent jihadists.
Later, I toured the large mosque I had seen when I first arrived. It cost $19 million to build, funded entirely by private donations. My host seemed excited and proud to show the building to me. I asked him if Saudi money funded the mosque. He demurred.
I was pretty sure I already knew the answer, so I asked if he could take me to see a more traditional mosque from this region of China.
After much prodding, we got in the car for a short drive. When we got out, all evidence of the Gulf had vanished. I stood on a dirt road lined with modest houses and shops. My host pointed toward a compound surrounded by a tall wall covered over in painted terra cotta. “Here it is.” We proceeded through the entrance into a small courtyard, an oasis of fruit trees and flowerpots, the perfect site for prayerful contemplation.
The mosque itself was much simpler than the Gulf-style mosque had been, made of wood and reflecting the themes of traditional Chinese architecture. The structure’s roof curled outward at its edges, while its open doorways permitted a view of the faithful praying inside. The religious services it housed conformed to what I was told was the ancient Sufi devotion mingled with traditional indigenous Chinese customs.
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2020.09.04 11:40 IdolA4Sepl Pop-ular Amat-eur Gi-rl Next Do-or Po-rn Nj

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2020.09.03 12:40 diogenesl Marvel's Avengers - Review Thread

Game Information

Game Title: Marvel's Avengers
Developers: Crystal Dynamics, Eidos-Montréal
Publisher: Square Enix
Review Aggregator:
OpenCritic - 75 average - 68% recommended - 28 reviews

Critic Reviews

ACG - Jeremy Penter - Unscored
"Avengers is fun for a bit but than just gets lost in weird level design, boring gameplay, spotty performance, and lack of true character."
Chicas Gamers - Alba Nausicáa - Spanish - Unscored
Marvel's Avengers is a game more focused on the future console generation than the present ones and so we can see on the PC version, however, those of us who will play it on current generations can still enjoy it to its fullest. Likewise, developers wanted to cover so much that in the end they failed keep it together. There are still some mechanics that are quite poor and too much content for some newbie players.
Cultured Vultures - Jimmy Donnellan - 6.5 / 10
Marvel's Avengers is held up by a surprisingly excellent single-player campaign and let down by its stagnant gameplay loop and widespread technical issues. We definitely can't do this all day.
Daily Mirror - JC Suttun - 3 / 5 stars
If you have even a passing fondness for these legendary Marvel characters, you'll likely have a blast with Avengers' campaign, but the relentless enticements for virtual wares might put you off hanging around afterwards.
Destructoid - Chris Carter - Unscored
Marvel's Avengers seems like a shoo-in for a future games-as-a-service "bringing up your grades" award. It's rough now, but after some free characters arrive in the mix alongside some quality of life updates and some performance patches, it could be a nice way to spend a weekend with some friends.
Gadgets 360 - Akhil Arora - 6 / 10
It's nowhere as annoying as the problems with combat though. If you can look past the latter — and it's not easy — you'll find a story that's largely well done, especially when it comes to Kamala's role in it. Its best moments are the narrative interludes, be it the early fun, charming, and giddy moments she shares with the Avengers or the quiet moments
Game Informer - Andrew Reiner - 8.8 / 10
The amount of depth can be confusing at first, but you have plenty of reasons to keep playing in the endgame
GameByte - Brett Claxton - Unscored
From what we’ve played of the game it seems like something that fans of the heroes will love, even if it’s just the story mode that you play. The multiplayer elements won’t be for everyone but there’s plenty there to keep coming back to.
GameMAG - Александр Логинов, Азамат Тегаев, Вадим Съедин - Russian - 6 / 10
Marvel's Avengers is a typical holiday blockbuster with bright special effects, explosions, chases and familiar characters, which periodically descends into dullness with boring missions and tasks. Without all this tinsel and service elements, Marvel's Avengers would probably be a much more complete and interesting game. At the same time, Crystal Dynamics managed to create a really interesting character with Kamala Khan, who deserves much more attention than the rest of the Avengers squad.
GameSpot - Phil Hornshaw - Unscored
Crystal Dynamics' take on the Avengers characters and the story therein is compelling, but live service aspects get in the way.
Gamerheadquarters - Jason Stettner - 9 / 10
Marvel’s Avengers is a generally fantastic and expansive experience that can provide countless hours of gameplay.
Gamers Heroes - Blaine Smith - 80 / 100
The future of Marvel's Avengers ongoing success will be completely dependent on the quality and regularity of content. However, as a game available today, it's a solid entry into the loot and shoot RPG space. The single player story is worth the price of admission alone, leaving the fun but dated approach to multiplayer a welcome addition for fans of the looter style approach.
GamesRadar+ - Rachel Weber - Unscored
The missions haven't been incredibly inspiring so far, but I'm hopeful that as my team grows and the challenges build, so will the variety in enemies.
Heavy - Elton Jones - 8.5 / 10
Marvel’s Avengers is still worth a recommendation and looks to be even more worthy as it throws free DLC at players over time.
Hobby Consolas - David Martinez - Spanish - 89 / 100
Marvel´s Avengers is a very ambitious game, with a spectacular single player campaign and multiplayer designed as a MMO, with enjoyable combat system and the promise of lots of content and new heroes incoming. Some missions can get repetitive.
IGN - Tom Marks - Unscored
The fundamentals of Avengers’ beat-em-up combat are a lot of fun in a campaign setting like this, with each mission giving you control of a specific character depending on the story’s needs at any given time.
Inverse - 8 / 10
This could have been a disaster. Thankfully, Avengers is simply a blast to play.
Kakuchopurei - Jonathan Leo - 50 / 100
There are shades and traces of a simple yet heartfelt action game buried underneath Marvel's Avengers' corporate-driven money-grubbing muck that clearly needed a few more months of QA and technical fixing. Until its updates and content elevates the base experience and assuming the Day One/Week One patch fixes a LOT of these game's grievances, you'll have to settle for Earth's Mediocre Heroes.
Metro GameCentral - Unscored
Whether players will be quite as enthusiastic after repeating the same mission objectives for the hundredth time, just in a slightly different location (that still lacks any personality or sense of place) we’ll have to see. But at the moment we can’t help wishing this was a considerably smaller game with fewer heroes and a lot more villains.
MonsterVine - Spencer Legacy - 4 / 5
Marvel’s Avengers is an all-around fun title that does justice to the Avengers name.
PC Invasion - Andrew Farrell - 8 / 10
Marvel's Avengers is a very entertaining game that makes great use of its characters. The PC version gave me some problems and many others are having similar issues, but it's an enjoyable time with a lot of value.
Polygon - Laura Kate Dale - Unscored
OK multiplayer stitched onto a great campaign
Shacknews - Donovan Erskine - 8 / 10
Quote not yet available
Spaziogames - Domenico Musicò - Italian - 7.4 / 10
Marvel's Avengers has a shallow and linear campaign, saved only by a brilliant start and the exciting finale. Multiplayer mode offers a good mission variety, but the success of the game con be already compromised by the repetitiveness and the generic combat system.
Stevivor - Steve Wright - Unscored
All up, Avengers is turning out to be a pleasant surprise so far, a game with more narrative and heart than I expected thanks to a lacklustre beta.
TheSixthAxis - Jim Hargreaves - 7 / 10
Past its flaws and behind the grind, Marvel's Avengers is still a fun superhero brawler that has plenty of room to grow in the coming months.
Worth Playing - Chris "Atom" DeAngelus - 8.5 / 10
Marvel's Avengers is an enjoyable Avengers-themed brawler that's tied to an untested multiplayer mode. If all you want is to play through the video game equivalent of a Marvel movie, then it does an excellent job. If you're hoping for something you can play for infinite hours with constant updates, the truth is that it's too early to tell. What we played was fun for a few hours of co-op, but I have my doubts about its long-term viability. It's by far the best Avengers game ever made, and with the exception of Hulk (whose Hulk: Ultimate Destruction remains the pinnacle of Hulk gameplay), it features the best video game version of the superheroes to date.
XboxEra - Jesse Norris - 8.8 / 10
Despite a rocky reveal Marvel’s Avengers is a fun, and gorgeous game that is a blast to play both solo and with friends. Featuring a campaign with emotional heft and multiplayer that is built to last, it is an easy recommendation for any fan of either the genre or the source material.
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